Internal Combustion Engine Engine – 20% efficient Only 20% of gasoline energy is converted to motion.
Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy Fuels Cells use hydrogen to produce electrical energy. They do not burn hydrogen. 2H 2 +O 2 2H 2 O + energy Fuel cells could be used to power cars with hydrogen as the fuel. Clean fuel
Barriers to Hydrogen Cars Still in development Expensive On-vehicle storage of hydrogen fuel Availability of hydrogen fuel Infrastructure
Fuel Cells In development stage. Currently very expensive. Are not a source of energy. Hydrogen must be supplied.
FuelCell Energy Based in Danbury Produces Direct Fuel Cells Stationary not mobile Distributed Generation Eastern is considering a 1 MW unit similar to this.
UTC Power Based in Hartford Produces Fuel Cells Both Stationary and mobile Car engines are very expensive
Connecticut Global Fuel Cell Center Engineering research center at UConn
Hydrogen Sources Steam reforming of natural gas: CH 4 +2H 2 O CO 2 + 4H 2 Electrolysis: 2H 2 O + energy 2H 2 + O 2
Energy Source for Electrolyzer Electrolysis requires energy. Energy could come from Solar, Nuclear, or Wind. In the short term, it would probably come from coal.
Vehicle Carbon Emission (grams per mile) Fuel Cell with electricity from coal440 Conventional with gasoline370 Conventional with natural gas310 Hybrid with gasoline190 Hybrid with natural gas170 Fuel Cell with hydrogen from reforming140