# Output Stages and Power Amplifiers

## Presentation on theme: "Output Stages and Power Amplifiers"— Presentation transcript:

Output Stages and Power Amplifiers
1

sedr42021_1401a.jpg Figure Collector current waveforms for transistors operating in (a) class A, (b) class B,

sedr42021_1401c.jpg Figure (Continued) (c) class AB, and (d) class C amplifier stages.

sedr42021_1402.jpg Figure An emitter follower (Q1) biased with a constant current I supplied by transistor Q2.

sedr42021_1403.jpg Figure Transfer characteristic of the emitter follower in Fig This linear characteristic is obtained by neglecting the change in vBE1 with iL. The maximum positive output is determined by the saturation of Q1. In the negative direction, the limit of the linear region is determined either by Q1 turning off or by Q2 saturating, depending on the values of I and RL.

sedr42021_1404a.jpg Figure Maximum signal waveforms in the class A output stage of Fig under the condition I = VCC /RL or, equivalently, RL = VCC /I.

sedr42021_1405.jpg Figure A class B output stage.

sedr42021_1406.jpg Figure Transfer characteristic for the class B output stage in Fig

sedr42021_1407.jpg Figure Illustrating how the dead band in the class B transfer characteristic results in crossover distortion.

sedr42021_1408.jpg Figure Power dissipation of the class B output stage versus amplitude of the output sinusoid.

sedr42021_1409.jpg Figure Class B circuit with an op amp connected in a negative-feedback loop to reduce crossover distortion.

sedr42021_1410.jpg Figure Class B output stage operated with a single power supply.

sedr42021_1411.jpg Figure Class AB output stage. A bias voltage VBB is applied between the bases of QN and QP, giving rise to a bias current IQ given by Eq. (14.23). Thus, for small vI, both transistors conduct and crossover distortion is almost completely eliminated.

sedr42021_1412.jpg Figure Transfer characteristic of the class AB stage in Fig

sedr42021_1413.jpg Figure Determining the small-signal output resistance of the class AB circuit of Fig

sedr42021_1414.jpg Figure A class AB output stage utilizing diodes for biasing. If the junction area of the output devices, QN and QP, is n times that of the biasing devices D1 and D2, and a quiescent current IQ = nIBIAS flows in the output devices.

sedr42021_1415.jpg Figure A class AB output stage utilizing a VBE multiplier for biasing.

sedr42021_1416.jpg Figure A discrete-circuit class AB output stage with a potentiometer used in the VBE multiplier. The potentiometer is adjusted to yield the desired value of quiescent current in QN and QP.

sedr42021_1417.jpg Figure Electrical equivalent circuit of the thermal-conduction process; TJ – TA = PDqJA.

sedr42021_1418.jpg Figure Maximum allowable power dissipation versus ambient temperature for a BJT operated in free air. This is known as a “power-derating” curve.

sedr42021_1419.jpg Figure The popular TO3 package for power transistors. The case is metal with a diameter of about 2.2 cm; the outside dimension of the “seating plane” is about 4 cm. The seating plane has two holes for screws to bolt it to a heat sink. The collector is electrically connected to the case. Therefore an electrically insulating but thermally conducting spacer is used between the transistor case and the “heat sink.”

sedr42021_1420.jpg Figure Electrical analog of the thermal conduction process when a heat sink is utilized.

sedr42021_1421.jpg Figure Maximum allowable power dissipation versus transistor-case temperature.

sedr42021_1422.jpg Figure Thermal equivalent circuit for Example 14.5.

sedr42021_1423.jpg Figure Safe operating area (SOA) of a BJT.

sedr42021_1424.jpg Figure A class AB output stage with an input buffer. In addition to providing a high input resistance, the buffer transistors Q1 and Q2 bias the output transistors Q3 and Q4.

sedr42021_1425.jpg Figure The Darlington configuration.

sedr42021_1426.jpg Figure The compound-pnp configuration.

sedr42021_1427.jpg Figure A class AB output stage utilizing a Darlington npn and a compound pnp. Biasing is obtained using a VBE multiplier.

sedr42021_1428.jpg Figure A class AB output stage with short-circuit protection. The protection circuit shown operates in the event of an output short circuit while vO is positive.

sedr42021_1429.jpg Figure Thermal-shutdown circuit.

sedr42021_1430.jpg Figure The simplified internal circuit of the LM380 IC power amplifier. (Courtesy National Semiconductor Corporation.)

sedr42021_1431.jpg Figure Small-signal analysis of the circuit in Fig The circled numbers indicate the order of the analysis steps.

sedr42021_1432.jpg Figure Power dissipation (PD) versus output power (PL) for the LM380 with RL = 8 W. (Courtesy National Semiconductor Corporation.)

sedr42021_1433.jpg Figure Structure of a power op amp. The circuit consists of an op amp followed by a class AB buffer similar to that discussed in Section The output current capability of the buffer, consisting of Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, is further boosted by Q5 and Q6.

sedr42021_1434.jpg Figure The bridge amplifier configuration.

sedr42021_1435.jpg Figure Double-diffused vertical MOS transistor (DMOS).

sedr42021_1436.jpg Figure Typical iD–vGS characteristic for a power MOSFET.

sedr42021_1437.jpg Figure The iD–vGS characteristic curve of a power MOS transistor (IRF 630, Siliconix) at case temperatures of –55°C, +25°C, and +125°C. (Courtesy Siliconix Inc.)

sedr42021_1438.jpg Figure A class AB amplifier with MOS output transistors and BJT drivers. Resistor R3 is adjusted to provide temperature compensation while R1 is adjusted to yield the desired value of quiescent current in the output transistors. Resistors RG are used to suppress parasitic oscillations at high frequencies. Typically, RG = 100 W.

sedr42021_1439.jpg Figure Capture schematic of the class B output stage in Example 14.6.

sedr42021_1440.jpg Figure Several waveforms associated with the class B output stage (shown in Fig ) when excited by a 17.9-V, 1-kHz sinusoidal signal. The upper graph displays the voltage across the load resistance, the middle graph displays the load current, and the lower graph displays the instantaneous and average power dissipated by the load.

sedr42021_1441.jpg Figure The voltage (upper graph), current (middle graph), and instantaneous and average power (bottom graph) supplied by the positive voltage supply (+VCC) in the circuit of Fig

sedr42021_1442.jpg Figure Waveforms of the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated in the pnp transistor QP of the output stage shown in Fig

sedr42021_1443.jpg Figure Transfer characteristic of the class B output stage of Fig

sedr42021_1414b.jpg

sedr42021_1444.jpg Figure Fourier-series components of the output waveform of the class B output stage in Fig

sedr42021_p1408.jpg Figure P14.8

sedr42021_p1411.jpg Figure P14.11

sedr42021_p1422.jpg Figure P14.22

sedr42021_p1437.jpg Figure P14.37

sedr42021_p1438.jpg Figure P14.38

sedr42021_p1442.jpg Figure P14.42

sedr42021_p1450.jpg Figure P14.50

sedr42021_p1452.jpg Figure P14.52