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Chapter 4: The Role of CultureInternational Business, 4th Edition Griffin & Pustay ©2004 Prentice Hall
Chapter Objectives_1 Discuss the primary characteristics of cultureDescribe the various elements of culture and provide examples of how they influence international business Identify the means by which members of a culture communicate with each other ©2004 Prentice Hall
Chapter Objectives_2 Discuss how religious and other values affect the domestic environments in which international businesses operate Describe the major cultural clusters and their usefulness for international managers Explain Hofstede’s primary findings about differences in cultural values Explain how ethical conflicts may arise ©2004 Prentice Hall
Culture Behaviors Values Culture Beliefs Attitudes Customs©2004 Prentice Hall
Characteristics of CultureLearned behavior Interrelated elements Adaptive Shared ©2004 Prentice Hall
Figure 4.1 Elements of CultureLanguage Communication Social Structure Culture Values/ Attitudes Religion ©2004 Prentice Hall
Social Structure Individuals, families, and groupsImportance of family Definition of family Importance of individual relative to the group Social stratification – categorization based on birth, occupation, educational achievements Social mobility – ability to move from one stratum of society to another ©2004 Prentice Hall
Language 3000+ different languages worldwide10,000+ different dialects Primary delineator of cultural groups Lingua Franca English is the common language of international business ©2004 Prentice Hall
Map 4.1 World Languages ©2004 Prentice Hall
Map 4.2 Africa’s Colonial Heritage©2004 Prentice Hall
Translation DisastersKFC’s Finger Lickin’ Good Eat your fingers off (China) Pillsbury’s Jolly Green Giant Intimidating green ogre (Saudia Arabia) ©2004 Prentice Hall
Yes and No Across CulturesLatin America meaning of “manana” Japan meaning of “yes” versus “yes, I understand” ©2004 Prentice Hall
Caterpillar has developed its own simplified language instruction program –Caterpillar Fundamental English ©2004 Prentice Hall
Table 4.1 Forms of Nonverbal Communication_1Hand gestures Facial expression Posture and stance Clothing/ hair style Walking behavior Interpersonal distance Touching Eye contact Architecture/ Interior design Artifacts and non-verbal symbols Graphic symbols ©2004 Prentice Hall
Table 4.1 Forms of Nonverbal Communication_2Art and rhetorical forms Smell Speech rate, pitch, inflection, volume Color symbolism Synchronization of speech and movement Taste, symbolism of food, oral gratification Cosmetics Sound signals Time symbolism Timing and pauses Silence ©2004 Prentice Hall
adheres to one of these four religions!Christianity Catholicism Protestant Eastern Orthodox Islam Hinduism Buddhism 72% of the world adheres to one of these four religions! ©2004 Prentice Hall
Map 4.3 Major World Religions©2004 Prentice Hall
Two million Muslims annually descend on the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudia Arabia as part of the Haij©2004 Prentice Hall
Values and Attitudes Values: accepted principles and standardsAttitudes: actions, feelings, and thoughts that result from values Time Age Education Status ©2004 Prentice Hall
Theories of Culture Hall’s Low-Context, High-Context ApproachCultural Cluster Approach Hofstede’s Five Dimensions ©2004 Prentice Hall
Hall’s Low-Context, High-Context ApproachLow-context: words used by speaker explicitly convey speaker’s message High-context: the context in which a conversation occurs is just as important as the words spoken; cultural clues are critical to communication ©2004 Prentice Hall
Figure 4.2 High- and Low-Context CulturesU.S./ Canadian Scandinavian Vietnamese Japanese German Spanish Chinese Britain Korean Italian Swiss Greek Arab ©2004 Prentice Hall
Map 4.4 A Synthesis of Country Clusters©2004 Prentice Hall
Table 4.2 Cultural Differences in Negotiating Styles©2004 Prentice Hall
Hofstede’s Five DimensionsSocial Orientation Power Orientation Uncertainty Orientation Goal Orientation Time Orientation ©2004 Prentice Hall
Social Orientation Individualism CollectivismRelative importance of the interests o the individual versus interests of the group ©2004 Prentice Hall
power/authority withinPower Orientation Power Respect Power Tolerance Appropriateness of power/authority within organizations ©2004 Prentice Hall
Uncertainty OrientationUncertainty Acceptance Uncertainty Avoidance An emotional response to uncertainty and change ©2004 Prentice Hall
to achieve different goalsGoal Orientation Aggressive Goal Behavior Passive Goal Behavior What motivates people to achieve different goals ©2004 Prentice Hall
Time Orientation Long-term Outlook Short-term OutlookThe extent to which members of a culture adopt a long-term or a short-term outlook on work and life ©2004 Prentice Hall
Figure 4.4 Social Orientation and Power Orientation Patterns©2004 Prentice Hall
Understanding New CulturesSelf-reference criterion Cultural literacy Acculturation ©2004 Prentice Hall
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