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www.edu.monash.edu Skilled migration, women and the role of education and training in regional Australia Introduction to an NCVER funded research project Anita Devos, Denise Beale, Sue Webb Faculty of Education & CEET Monash University
www.edu.monash.edu Outline of presentation A brief overview of regional skilled migration Research questions and aims The research rationale and key considerations Design and methodology Methods and preliminary findings Issues in developing the research Invitation for feedback
www.edu.monash.edu Regional skilled migration Temporary and permanent skilled migration a strategy used to address skills shortages. A number of regional migration programs aiming to attract migrants into regional areas. The majority of regional migrants are sponsored either by an employer or by a state or territory government. An increase in the number of places under the Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme has been announced for 2011-12 (Crean, 2011).
www.edu.monash.edu Rising numbers of skilled regional migrants Between 2008 and 2010, grants of employer-sponsored visas increased by 102%. State and territory sponsored grants increased by 151 %(DIAC, 2011). Between 1998 and 2009, the numbers of skilled migrants settling in regional Australia rose from 10% to 14.7% (Cully, 2010). 73% of permanent migrants settling in regional areas arrived originally on 457 temporary visas (Cully, 2010). More than 50 % of these migrants were secondary applicants (Cully, 2010).
www.edu.monash.edu Rationale for the research The growing number of migrants in regional areas. Migrants as primary visa holders may be sponsored but what about their spouses? The limited data available, particularly in relation to gender and the education and training experience and labour market experiences of migrants in the regions. Research into the experience of skilled migrant women in regional areas is scant. The limited evidence suggests these women face a number of challenges in finding work and education that supports their entry into work. If having a job is a measure of social inclusion, this an issue for retaining those families in the regions.
www.edu.monash.edu Research questions How can VET contribute towards socially inclusive outcomes for migrant women and their families in regional Australia? How can the cultural capital and assets of migrant women be harnessed in the context of regional industry, community development and social cohesion?
www.edu.monash.edu Aims of the research To identify the aspirations and issues of skilled migrant women. To map the presence, and participation rates in VET and in work, of migrant women in regional communities, beginning with two case study sites. To understand how new skilled women migrants utilise previous and current learning experiences in their transition into the labour market in Australia. To contribute to the development of policy and frameworks for utilising the assets of skilled migrant women in regional Australia.
www.edu.monash.edu Key considerations shaping the study What is the relationship between VET and migration? How does skilled migration in the regions affect VET? What does social inclusion look like for migrants in the regions? Having any old job or is it something more? What part does VET play in achieving socially inclusive outcomes in regional areas particularly for migrant women and their families?
www.edu.monash.edu The research design and methodology Case study approach—2 regional centres Three levels of inquiry: –The ‘demand-drivers’, particularly regional and migration policies and labour markets. –The supply-side organisations that support new migrants and provide education and training to assist the migrant into employment. –The individual migrant woman and the role of learning in a regional location.
www.edu.monash.edu Methods A review of the literature on women and VET, regional issues in VET, and women, migration and learning. An analysis of existing quantitative data from the ABS and DIAC on the demographic features, geographical location and human capital of both temporary and permanent skilled migrants in regional Australia. Field work in two regional centres in Victoria with high skilled migrant populations, utilising focus groups, individual interviews and workshops.
www.edu.monash.edu Labour force status migrant women Source: ABS (2007) Labour force status and other characteristics of recent migrants, cat.no. 6250.0, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Data analysed includes women arrivals after 1997 of working age (1269 observations of which 1038 were in capital cities, 231 were not) Labour force status Capital cityBalance of country Total Employed54.34%64.5%56.19% Unemployed4.82%3.9%4.65% Not in labour force 40.85%31.6%39.16%
www.edu.monash.edu Preliminary findings – 1 (2007 LFS) Women migrants who are not primary applicants are less qualified than women who are PAs And the more qualified are more likely to be employed Over 50% of permanent skilled and temp. (457) women migrants have degrees or above; 33-35% women entering as family members & companions (all visas) have degrees or above; 64% migrant women with degree or above are employed as are 60% of those with VET quals; But those with no post school quals are just as likely not to be in the labour force (48%) as they are to employed (48%).
www.edu.monash.edu Preliminary findings – 2 (2007 LFS) Some women migrants experience downward mobility and perhaps skill under-utilisation Of those who gained a degree or above overseas, only 40% are working in occupations requiring a degree, 36% are not working, and 24% are in jobs with lower skill levels, mostly as clerical and administrative workers; Of those with VET quals from Cert II – Adv Diploma, 40% are not working and 8% are working as labourers.
www.edu.monash.edu Issues in developing the project Fragmented picture of the geography of migration making mapping difficult Challenge of researching diverse communities and cultures in distant locations Skilled migrants as humanitarian visa holders and their place in the study The need to be flexible when working with diverse groups and organisations
www.edu.monash.edu Feedback and comments We invite your comments on any aspect of the project. Please contact: Dr Denise Beale Research Fellow Faculty of Education Monash University Clayton VIC 3800 Denise.firstname.lastname@example.orgDenise.email@example.com. Thank you
www.edu.monash.edu References ABS (2007) Labour force status and other characteristics of recent migrants, cat.no. 6250.0, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Crean, S. (2011) Budget 2011-12. Investing in regional Australia, Canberra: Treasury. Cully, M. (2010) The contribution of migrants to regional Australia, Canberra: Department of Immigration and Citizenship. DIAC (2011) Population flows: Immigration aspects 2009–10 edition, Canberra: Department of Immigration and Citizenship.
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