9 SUPPLY – QUANTITY ADAPTATION Climate change & water resource planning Drought contingency planning Capturing more winter rainfall for use in dry periods Leakage work; soil shrinkage in pipeline design Customers using water wisely
10 SUPPLY – IMPACTS ON QUALITY Warm & dry: more concentrated pollutants; cyanobacteria; new pathogens? Wet & stormy: more suspended solids, nitrates, crypto, other pollutants.
11 SUPPLY – QUALITY ADAPTATION At-risk sources in water resource & water safety plans. Work in reservoirs More water treatment / blending / alternative sources Source protection, diffuse pollution control
13 WET & STORMY WEATHER - IMPACTS High volumes of water in short amounts of time More debris washed into sewerage system Sewers overloaded Treatment works’ storm flow capacity exceeded
14 SEWER SIZE & STORMS Historically, sewers built to avoid internal flooding in the event of a ‘1 / 10-20 year’ storm event –e.g. 25mm falling in 1 hour In recent years, new sewers designed to cope with a 1 / 30 year storm…then 1 / 50 year… By 2080, storms of an intensity currently expected 1 / 30 years are predicted to occur 1 / 10 years
15 WET & STORMY WEATHER - ADAPTATION (conventional solutions…) Bigger sewers, more sewage works capacity Increasing storage – tunnels, tanks / shafts –Ofwat in 2004: wanted more ‘certainty’ –Ofwat position in 2009..? Ongoing maintenance e.g. sewer jetting
16 2005-10: Work to reduce internal flooding Properties at risk of flooding (1 / 10 years) 1999/00: 1456 2005: 796 2010: 134
17 OTHER APPROACHES Restoring the land’s ‘sponginess’ –Woodland protection / planting –Sustainable Urban / Rural Drainage Systems –Ponds and other water retention in catchments –Tillage techniques to avoid soil erosion Better co-ordination needed between interests
18 TRANSITION TO THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY Energy cost Future availability of fossil fuels Government policy Taxation & incentive schemes Monetary value of carbon Regulators getting interested…customers too?
19 Implications for the Water Industry ADAPTATION MITIGATION