MGTO 630C Staffing and Managing Human Resources Dr. Christina Sue-Chan Performance Management: Chapter 7 Saturday, March 15, 2003 Please note: This is.
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MGTO 630C Staffing and Managing Human Resources Dr. Christina Sue-Chan Performance Management: Chapter 7 Saturday, March 15, 2003 Please note: This is only a preliminary version of the file that will be shown in class. Depending on the flow of in-class discussion, we may not be able to discuss all the overheads in this file.
2 By the end of the performance management module, you should be able to Know how to more effectively conduct performance appraisals Be a more effective coach
3 Coaching in the Context of Performance Management ( Adapted from McAfee & Champagne, 1993) Organizational Goals & Standards 1. Performance Planning Activity Establish performance and developmental goals and action plans with employee When Beginning of new performance period 3. Appraising Performance2. Managing Performance Activity Observe and document efforts and achievements; provide feedback and COACHING Activity Evaluate and discuss employees accomplish- ments, behaviour, & skills When During the entire performance period When End of performance period
4 Why Performance Appraisal? Administrative pay (compensation adjustments) promotions, demotions, terminations, transfer (placement decisions) Monitoring / assessment training and development needs deficiencies in staffing process informational inaccuracies job design errors avoid discrimination Development performance feedback (improvement) career development
5 Performance Appraisal Any personnel decision that affects an employee’s retention, termination, promotion, demotion, transfer, salary increase or decrease, or admission into a training program (Latham & Wexley, 1994, p. 4) The systematic observation, evaluation, and description of work-related behavior
6 Legally Defensible Performance Appraisal Validity and Reliability freedom from bias practicality
7 Cautionary Note When conducting Performance Appraisals: What About those Attributions? Internal (Personality) External (Situation) Stable Unstable Task Difficulty Luck Ability Effort Explaining the Cause of Behaviour Bias in performance evaluations
8 Practical Implications More feedback desired than given Feedback should be specific, behaviourally -based, constructive, specify future performance goals to be achieved, related to outcomes as well as process required to achieve outcome Informal, day-to-day feedback more important than formal, annual Perceived fairness of feedback important
9 Negative Feedback Negative feedback Increasing acceptability from credible source high status, expertise, trustworthy, respected objective in form hard data: numbers, specific examples Be aware of the sensitive line point at which clients / individuals become defensive or protective when they encounter information about themselves that is inconsistent with their self-concept or when they encounter pressure to alter their behaviour
10 Feedback Styles Tell and sell tell employees how well they are doing; sell / assign difficult, specific goals --> increase performance Tell and listen tell employees how well they are doing; listen for employees response --> increase satisfaction Problem solving employee participates, discusses and solve problems, set specific goal to improve performance --> satisfaction and performance
11 Coaching Interpersonal interaction aimed at helping a trainee to develop and implement focused strategies for improving his or her performance Fit coaching to the individual Orientation (avoidance versus approach) seems to matter Individual personality characteristics seems to make a differences as well (which ones?)
12 Ground Rules for Effective Coaching Focus on the future rather than the past Focus on the issue rather than the person Focus on what you want, rather than what you don’t want No surprises for the client
13 Critical Communication Skills for Coaches Active listening Demonstrate to the client that you are genuinely interested in what she or he is saying Respecting pauses Wait for the client to resume speaking after she or he has paused rather than starting to speak immediately after a pause
14 Reflecting feelings Acknowledge the feelings of the client by labelling the feeling and feeding it back to the client in terms of a brief emotional paraphrase 4Restating ideas Restate to the client the main ideas she or he stated, shortened and clarified a bit Critical Communication Skills for Coaches
15 Asking general exploratory questions Question to determine potential sources of problems: “Do you think …” “Is there …” Critical Communication Skills for Coaches
16 Asking stimulating questions Question to encourage the client to convey more information so that you can develop a better understanding of the topic being discussed by the client: “Could …”; “What …”; “How …” Avoid using, “Why...” Summarising periodically Recap the main points that the client has made Critical Communication Skills for Coaches
17 Descriptive Communication (for personal issues) STEP 1 Describe as objectively as possible the event, behaviour, or circumstance. Avoid accusations. Present data or evidence, if needed. STEP 2 Describe your own reactions to or feelings about the event, behaviour or circumstance. Describe the objective consequences that have or will likely result. Focus on the behaviour and on your own reaction, not on the other individual or his or her personal attributes. STEP 3 Suggest a more acceptable alternative. Be prepared to discuss additional alternatives. Focus on the alternative solutions, not on who is right or wrong.
18 Attaining High Performance High Self-Efficacy High Goals PERFORMANCE Rewards Contingent Satisfaction Commitment Future Challenges Valence Coaching Expectancy Theory