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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Presentation on theme: "Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells"— Presentation transcript:

1 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

2 Prokaryotic Cells Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.

3 Prokaryote Eukaryote One circular chromosome, not in a membrane
No histones No organelles Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane Histones Organelles Polysaccharide cell walls Mitotic spindle

4 Basic Prokaryote (Bacterial) Cell Shapes
Average size: µm  µm Basic shapes: Spirillum Bacillus Diplococci Streptococci Spirochete Coccobacillus

5 Figure Overview

6 Figure 4.1a

7 Figure 4.1d

8 Figure Overview

9 Figure 4.2a–b

10 Figure 4.2c

11 Bacillus anthracis Figure 4.3

12 Figure Overview

13 Most bacteria are monomorphic A few are pleomorphic
Unusual shapes Star-shaped Stella Square Haloarcula Most bacteria are monomorphic A few are pleomorphic Figure 4.5

14 Glycocalyx – “Sugar Coat”
Outside cell wall Usually sticky A capsule is neatly organized A slime layer is unorganized and loose Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) allows cell to attach Capsules prevent phagocytosis Figure 4.6a–b

15 Figure Overview

16 Flagella Outside cell wall Made of chains of flagellin
Attached to a protein hook Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body Figure 4.8a

17 Flagella Arrangement Figure 4.7

18 Figure 4.8b

19 Motile Cells Rotate flagella to run or tumble
Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)

20 Motile Cells Figure 4.9

21 Motile Cells PLAY Animation: Bacterial Motility Figures 4.9a, 4.23d

22 Axial Filaments Endoflagella In spirochetes
Anchored at one end of a cell Rotation causes cell to move Figure 4.10a

23 Fimbriae allow attachment
Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Figure 4.11

24 Cell Wall Prevents osmotic lysis Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
Figure 4.6a–b

25 Figure 4.6a

26 Peptidoglycan Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) Linked by polypeptides Figure 4.13a

27 Figure 4.13b–c

28 Gram-Positive Gram-Negative Cell Walls Cell Walls
Thick peptidoglycan In acid-fast cells, contains mycolic acid Thin peptidoglycan Outer membrane No mycolic acid

29 Gram Gram - UN 4.2

30 Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane. Protection from phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics

31 Gram Stain Mechanism Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell.
Gram-positive Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan CV-I crystals do not leave Gram-negative Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan. CV-I washes out

32 Damage to Cell Walls Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan.
Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan. Protoplast is a wall-less cell. Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.

33 Plasma Membrane Figure 4.14a

34 Plasma Membrane Phospholipid bilayer Peripheral proteins
Integral proteins Figure 4.14b

35 Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.
Proteins move to function. Phospholipids rotate and move laterally. Figure 4.14b

36 Figure 4.14c

37 Plasma Membrane Selective permeability allows passage of some molecules Enzymes for ATP production Photosynthetic pigments on foldings called chromatophores or thylakoids

38 Movement Across Membranes
Simple diffusion: Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Facilitative diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.

39 Movement Across Membranes
Figure 4.17

40 Movement Across Membranes
Osmosis: The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. Osmotic pressure: The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane. Figure 4.18a

41 Movement Across Membranes
Figure 4.18a–b

42 Figure 4.18c–e

43 Movement Across Membranes
Active transport of substances requires a transporter protein and ATP. PLAY Animation: Membrane Transport

44 Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is the substance inside the plasma membrane.
Figure 4.6a–b

45 Nuclear Area Nuclear area (nucleoid) Bacterial chromosome Plasmids
Figure 4.6a–b

46 Ribosomes Figure 4.6a–b

47 Ribosomes Figure 4.19

48 Inclusions Figure 4.20

49 Endospores Resting cells Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals
Bacillus, Clostridium Sporulation: Endospore formation Germination: Return to vegetative state

50 Figure 4.21b

51 Figure 4.21a, step 1

52 Figure 4.21a, step 2

53 Figure 4.21a, step 3

54 Figure 4.21a, step 4

55 Figure 4.21a, step 5

56 Figure 4.21a, step 6

57 Figure Overview

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