Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
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1 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 4Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
2 Prokaryotic Cells Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus.Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
3 Prokaryote Eukaryote One circular chromosome, not in a membrane No histonesNo organellesPeptidoglycan cell wallsBinary fissionPaired chromosomes, in nuclear membraneHistonesOrganellesPolysaccharide cell wallsMitotic spindle
30 Gram-Negative Outer Membrane Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipidsForms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane.Protection from phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics
31 Gram Stain Mechanism Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell. Gram-positiveAlcohol dehydrates peptidoglycanCV-I crystals do not leaveGram-negativeAlcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan.CV-I washes out
32 Damage to Cell Walls Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan. Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan.Protoplast is a wall-less cell.Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.
37 Plasma MembraneSelective permeability allows passage of some moleculesEnzymes for ATP productionPhotosynthetic pigments on foldings called chromatophores or thylakoids
38 Movement Across Membranes Simple diffusion: Movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.Facilitative diffusion: Solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane.
40 Movement Across Membranes Osmosis: The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.Osmotic pressure: The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane.Figure 4.18a