# 1 Measurement PROCESS AND PRODUCT. 2 MEASUREMENT The assignment of numerals to phenomena according to rules.

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1 Measurement PROCESS AND PRODUCT

2 MEASUREMENT The assignment of numerals to phenomena according to rules

3 Measurement Components CONCEPTUALIZATION CONCEPTUALIZATION NOMINAL DEFINITION NOMINAL DEFINITION OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OPERATIONAL DEFINITION MEASUREMENT OF THE ATTRIBUTES MEASUREMENT OF THE ATTRIBUTES

4 Measurement Quality RELIABILITY – consistency RELIABILITY – consistency VALIDITY – “on target” VALIDITY – “on target”

5 Reliability TEST-RETEST TEST-RETEST SPLIT-HALF SPLIT-HALF ESTABLISHED MEASURES ESTABLISHED MEASURES RESEARCHER-WORKER RESEARCHER-WORKER

6 Validity FACE FACE CRITERION (predictive) - uses behavior CRITERION (predictive) - uses behavior CONSTRUCT - uses theoretical connection CONSTRUCT - uses theoretical connection CONTENT - multiple attributes for complex concepts CONTENT - multiple attributes for complex concepts

7 Rules (Levels) of Measurement Nominal Nominal Mutually exclusive and exhaustive Mutually exclusive and exhaustive Ordinal Ordinal First to last/High to low First to last/High to low Interval Interval Known distance between attributes Known distance between attributes Ratio Ratio Absolute zero Absolute zero

8 Measurement Matrix Mutually Exclusive & Exhaustive Inherent order or Sequence Known distance between attributes Absolute Zero Nominal X Ordinal X X Interval X X X Ratio X X X X

9 Composite Measures Indexes – accumulation of scores assigned to individual attributes (ordinal measure) Indexes – accumulation of scores assigned to individual attributes (ordinal measure) Scales – scores assigned to patterns of responses – often varying in intensity (ordinal measure) Scales – scores assigned to patterns of responses – often varying in intensity (ordinal measure) Typologies – summarizes the intersection of two or more variables creating a set of categories or types (nominal measure) Typologies – summarizes the intersection of two or more variables creating a set of categories or types (nominal measure)

10 Index Item selection Item selection Face validity Face validity Unidimensionality Unidimensionality General or specific General or specific Variance Variance Examination of empirical relationship Examination of empirical relationship Index scoring Index scoring Handling missing data Handling missing data Index validation Index validation Item analysis Item analysis External validation External validation

11 Scale Scale construction Scale construction Takes into account that not all indicators of a variable are equally important or equally strong Takes into account that not all indicators of a variable are equally important or equally strong Scales Scales Bogardus social distance Bogardus social distance Thurstone scales Thurstone scales Likert scaling Likert scaling Semantic differential Semantic differential Guttman scaling Guttman scaling

12 Typology Uses the intersection of two or more variables – often represented in matrix format Uses the intersection of two or more variables – often represented in matrix format Useful for describing relationships Useful for describing relationships Useful as an independent variable Useful as an independent variable Difficult to analyze as a dependent variable when attempting to “elaborate” the relationship Difficult to analyze as a dependent variable when attempting to “elaborate” the relationship

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