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**Elasticity and Its Application**

5 Elasticity and Its Application

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded or quantity supplied To one of its determinants

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Price elasticity of demand Measure of how much quantity demanded of a good responds To a change in the price of that good Percentage change in quantity demanded Divided by the percentage change in price Measures how willing consumers are to buy less of the good as its price rises

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Price elasticity of demand Elastic demand Quantity demanded responds substantially to changes in the price Inelastic demand Quantity demanded responds only slightly to changes in the price

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Determinants of price elasticity of demand Availability of close substitutes Goods with close substitutes More elastic demand Necessities vs. luxuries Necessities – inelastic demand Luxuries – elastic demand Definition of the market Narrowly defined markets – more elastic demand Time horizon More elastic over longer time horizons

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Computing the price elasticity of demand Percentage change in quantity demanded Divided by percentage change in price Use absolute value (drop the minus sign) Midpoint method Two points: (Q1, P1) and (Q2, P2)

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Variety of demand curves Demand is elastic Elasticity > 1 Demand is inelastic Elasticity < 1 Demand has unit elasticity Elasticity = 1

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Variety of demand curves Demand is perfectly inelastic Elasticity = 0 Demand curve - vertical Demand is perfectly elastic Elasticity = infinity Demand curve - horizontal The flatter the demand curve The greater the price elasticity of demand

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**The price elasticity of demand (a, b)**

1 The price elasticity of demand (a, b) Perfectly inelastic demand: Elasticity = 0 (b) Inelastic demand: Elasticity < 1 1. an Price 1. an Price Demand 100 Demand An increase in price… A 22% increase in price… 2. … leads to an 11% decrease in quantity demanded $5 $5 90 4 4 100 2. …leaves the quantity demanded unchanged Quantity Quantity The price elasticity of demand determines whether the demand curve is steep or flat. Note that all percentage changes are calculated using the midpoint method.

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**The price elasticity of demand (c)**

1 The price elasticity of demand (c) (c) Unit elastic demand: Elasticity = 1 1. an Price Demand $5 A 22% increase in price… 80 4 100 2. … leads to A 22% decrease in quantity demanded Quantity The price elasticity of demand determines whether the demand curve is steep or flat. Note that all percentage changes are calculated using the midpoint method.

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**The price elasticity of demand (d, e)**

1 The price elasticity of demand (d, e) (d) Elastic demand: Elasticity > 1 (e) Perfectly elastic demand: Elasticity equals infinity 1. an Price 1. an Price A 22% increase in price… 1. At any price above $4, quantity demanded is zero Demand 2. At exactly $4, consumers will buy any quantity $5 50 4 Demand $4 100 3. At any price below $4, quantity demanded is infinite 2. … leads to a 67% decrease in quantity demanded Quantity Quantity The price elasticity of demand determines whether the demand curve is steep or flat. Note that all percentage changes are calculated using the midpoint method.

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Total revenue Amount paid by buyers Received by sellers of a good Computed as: price of the good times the quantity sold (P ˣ Q)

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**2 Total revenue Price 1. an $4 P ˣ Q=$400 (revenue) Demand P 100**

Quantity Q The total amount paid by buyers, and received as revenue by sellers, equals the area of the box under the demand curve, P × Q. Here, at a price of $4, the quantity demanded is 100, and total revenue is $400.

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Total revenue and price elasticity of demand Inelastic demand Increase in price Increase in total revenue Elastic demand Decrease in total revenue

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**How total revenue changes when price changes (a)**

3 How total revenue changes when price changes (a) (a) The Case of Inelastic Demand Price Price 1. an 1. an Demand Demand $3 Revenue=$240 80 $1 Revenue=$100 100 Quantity Quantity The impact of a price change on total revenue (the product of price and quantity) depends on the elasticity of demand. In panel (a), the demand curve is inelastic. In this case, an increase in the price leads to a decrease in quantity demanded that is proportionately smaller, so total revenue increases. Here an increase in the price from $1 to $3 causes the quantity demanded to fall from 100 to 80. Total revenue rises from $100 to $240

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**How total revenue changes when price changes (b)**

3 How total revenue changes when price changes (b) (b) The Case of Elastic Demand Price Price 1. an 1. an $5 Demand Demand Revenue=$100 20 $4 Revenue =$200 50 Quantity Quantity The impact of a price change on total revenue (the product of price and quantity) depends on the elasticity of demand. In panel (b), the demand curve is elastic. In this case, an increase in the price leads to a decrease in quantity demanded that is proportionately larger, so total revenue decreases. Here an increase in the price from $4 to $5 causes the quantity demanded to fall from 50 to 20. Total revenue falls from $200 to $100. .

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

When demand is inelastic Price and total revenue move in the same direction When demand is elastic Price and total revenue move in opposite directions If demand is unit elastic Total revenue remains constant when the price changes

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Elasticity and total revenue along a linear demand curve Linear demand curve Constant slope Different elasticities Points with low price & high quantity Inelastic Points with high price & low quantity Elastic

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**Elasticity of a linear demand curve (graph)**

4 Elasticity of a linear demand curve (graph) Price Elasticity is larger than 1 1. an Demand $7 14 6 2 5 4 4 Elasticity is smaller than 1 6 3 8 2 10 1 12 Quantity The slope of a linear demand curve is constant, but its elasticity is not. The demand schedule in the table was used to calculate the price elasticity of demand by the midpoint method. At points with a low price and high quantity, the demand curve is inelastic. At points with a high price and low quantity, the demand curve is elastic.

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**Elasticity of a linear demand curve (schedule)**

4 Elasticity of a linear demand curve (schedule) Price Quantity Total revenue (Price ˣ Quantity) Percentage Change in Price Percentage Change in Quantity Elasticity Description $ O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 $0 20 24 15 18 22 29 40 67 200 13.0 3.7 1.8 1.0 0.6 0.3 0.1 Elastic Unit elastic Inelastic The slope of a linear demand curve is constant, but its elasticity is not. The demand schedule in the table was used to calculate the price elasticity of demand by the midpoint method. At points with a low price and high quantity, the demand curve is inelastic. At points with a high price and low quantity, the demand curve is elastic.

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Income elasticity of demand Measure of how much the quantity demanded of a good responds To a change in consumers’ income Percentage change in quantity demanded Divided by the percentage change in income Normal goods: positive income elasticity Necessities: smaller income elasticities Luxuries: large income elasticities Inferior goods: negative income elasticities

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**The Elasticity of Demand**

Cross-price elasticity of demand Measure of how much the quantity demanded of one good responds To a change in the price of another good Percentage change in quantity demanded of the first good Divided by the percentage change in price of the second good Substitutes: Positive cross-price elasticity Complements: Negative cross-price elasticity

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**The Elasticity of Supply**

Price elasticity of supply Measure of how much the quantity supplied of a good responds To a change in the price of that good Percentage change in quantity supplied Divided by the percentage change in price Depends on the flexibility of sellers to change the amount of the good they produce

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**The Elasticity of Supply**

Price elasticity of supply Elastic supply Quantity supplied responds substantially to changes in the price Inelastic supply Quantity supplied responds only slightly to changes in the price Determinant of price elasticity of supply Time period Supply is more elastic in long run

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**The Elasticity of Supply**

Computing price elasticity of supply Percentage change in quantity supplied Divided by percentage change in price Variety of supply curves Supply is perfectly inelastic Elasticity =0 Supply curve – vertical Supply is perfectly elastic Elasticity = infinity Supply curve – horizontal

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**The Elasticity of Supply**

Variety of supply curves Unit elastic supply Elasticity =1 Elastic supply Elasticity >1 Inelastic supply Elasticity < 1

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**The price elasticity of supply (a, b)**

5 The price elasticity of supply (a, b) Perfectly inelastic supply: Elasticity = 0 (b) Inelastic supply: Elasticity < 1 1. an Price 1. an Price Supply 100 Supply An increase in price… A 22% increase in price… 2. … leads to a 10% increase in quantity supplied $5 $5 110 4 4 100 2. …leaves the quantity supplied unchanged Quantity Quantity The price elasticity of supply determines whether the supply curve is steep or flat. Note that all percentage changes are calculated using the midpoint method.

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**The price elasticity of supply (c)**

5 The price elasticity of supply (c) (c) Unit elastic supply: Elasticity =1 1. an Price Supply A 22% increase in price… $5 2. … leads to a 22% increase in quantity supplied 125 4 100 Quantity The price elasticity of supply determines whether the supply curve is steep or flat. Note that all percentage changes are calculated using the midpoint method.

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**The price elasticity of supply (d, e)**

5 The price elasticity of supply (d, e) (d) Elastic supply: Elasticity > 1 (e) Perfectly elastic supply: Elasticity equals infinity 1. an Price 1. an Price 1. At any price above $4, quantity supplied is infinite A 22% increase in price… Supply 2. At exactly $4, producers will supply any quantity $5 50 4 Supply $4 100 2. … leads to a 67% increase in quantity supplied 3. At any price below $4, quantity supplied is zero Quantity Quantity The price elasticity of supply determines whether the supply curve is steep or flat. Note that all percentage changes are calculated using the midpoint method.

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**How the price elasticity of supply can vary**

6 How the price elasticity of supply can vary 1. an Price Supply Elasticity is small (less than 1). $15 525 12 500 Elasticity is large (greater than 1). 4 3 200 100 Quantity Because firms often have a maximum capacity for production, the elasticity of supply may be very high at low levels of quantity supplied and very low at high levels of quantity supplied. Here an increase in price from $3 to $4 increases the quantity supplied from 100 to 200. Because the 67 percent increase in quantity supplied (computed using the midpoint method) is larger than the 29 percent increase in price, the supply curve is elastic in this range. By contrast, when the price rises from $12 to $15, the quantity supplied rises only from 500 to 525. Because the 5 percent increase in quantity supplied is smaller than the 22 percent increase in price, the supply curve is inelastic in this range.

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**Applications of Supply, Demand, & Elasticity**

Can good news for farming be bad news for farmers? New hybrid of wheat – increase production per acre 20% Supply curve changes Supply curve shifts to the right Higher quantity; lower price Demand – inelastic Total revenue falls Paradox of public policy Induce farmers not to plant crops

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**An increase in supply in the market for wheat**

7 An increase in supply in the market for wheat Price of Wheat 1. When demand is inelastic, an increase in supply . . . S1 Demand 2. … leads to a large fall in price. . . S2 $3 100 3. … and a proportionately smaller increase in quantity sold. As a result, revenue falls from $300 to $220. 2 110 Quantity of Wheat When an advance in farm technology increases the supply of wheat from S1 to S2, the price of wheat falls. Because the demand for wheat is inelastic, the increase in the quantity sold from 100 to 110 is proportionately smaller than the decrease in the price from $3 to $2. As a result, farmers’ total revenue falls from $300 ($3 × 100) to $220 ($2 × 110).

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**Applications of Supply, Demand, & Elasticity**

Why did OPEC fail to keep the price of oil high? 1970s: OPEC reduced supply of oil Increase in prices and Short-run: supply is inelastic Decrease in supply: large increase in price – price of oil decreased Long-run: supply is elastic Decrease in supply: small increase in price

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**A reduction in supply in the world market for oil**

8 A reduction in supply in the world market for oil (a) The Oil Market in the Short Run (b) The Oil Market in the Long Run 1. an Price 1. In the short run, when supply and demand are inelastic, a shift in supply. . . 1. an Price 1. In the long run, when supply and demand are elastic, a shift in supply. . . S2 S1 Demand S2 S1 P2 Demand 2. … leads to a large increase in price P2 P1 P1 2. … leads to a small increase in price Quantity Quantity When the supply of oil falls, the response depends on the time horizon. In the short run, supply and demand are relatively inelastic, as in panel (a). Thus, when the supply curve shifts from S1 to S2, the price rises substantially. By contrast, in the long run, supply and demand are relatively elastic, as in panel (b). In this case, the same size shift in the supply curve (S1 to S2) causes a smaller increase in the price.

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