# CS 106 Introduction to Computer Science I 11 / 15 / 2006 Instructor: Michael Eckmann.

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CS 106 Introduction to Computer Science I 11 / 15 / 2006 Instructor: Michael Eckmann

Michael Eckmann - Skidmore College - CS 106 - Fall 2006 Today’s Topics Comments and/or Questions? Look for programming assignment to be assign in few hours Inheritance ideas Bank Account exercise class Object –toString super overriding methods in class hierachies public, private, protected...

Bank account Exercise What data members describe a bank account? – That is, what does a bank account have. What types are these? We want to handle Checking and Savings Accounts

Bank account Maybe we might want the following data members: – Account number – Balance – Overdrawn Fee – ATM Withdrawal Per Day Limit – Bounced Check Fee – Interest Rate

Bank account So we could have a class named BankAccount that contains the following data: String Account_number; double Balance; double Overdrawn_Fee; int ATM_Withdrawal_Per_Day_Limit; double Bounced_Check_Fee; double Interest_Rate;

Bank account What methods might we need?

Bank account Notice that the data here isn't for all accounts: – Account number (for all accounts) – Balance (for all accounts) – Overdrawn Fee (for all accounts) – ATM Withdrawal Per Day Limit (for all accounts) – Bounced Check Fee (for checking accounts only) – Interest Rate (for savings accounts only)

Bank account We could create an Account class that contained the common stuff among all accounts We then could create a SavingsAccount class that inherits all the stuff about an Account from Account class and adds the things that are specific to Savings Accounts. We also could create a CheckingAccount class that inherits all the stuff about an Account from Account class and adds the things that are specific to Checking Accounts. These ideas are Inheritence ideas

Inheritance A subclass inherits all the instance variables in its superclass and has access to (can call) any public methods. Even if there is private instance data in a superclass, the subclass inherits that data but can't refer to the variables. e.g. a SavingsAccount will inherit accountNumber from Account, so an object of type SavingsAccount will have an accountNumber.

Object is the superclass of all All classes inherit from Java's Object class. All classes that do not use the extends keyword directly inherit from Java's Object class. What does that mean for us? Let's visit the Java API for the Object class. – equals() – toString()

super is a reference to the parent class super(); // is a call to the parent's default (no parameter) constructor A call to a parent constructor should be the first thing done in any constructor of a child. If you don't explicitly call it, Java will automatically call the parent's default constructor if it exists.

Hierarchy of the account classes SavingsAccount and CheckingAccount each inherit from Account What about AccountTester? How about the Object class?

Overriding methods A subclass can override a superclass's method by providing a definition for a method that exists in the superclass with the same name and number and type of parameters. Let's add a method to Account and override it in SavingsAccount, but not in CheckingAccount. Then let's call the method with an object of SavingsAccount. And let's call the method with an object of CheckingAccount.

Overriding methods public String toString() What do you think about the toString() method? Can that be overridden by Account? Can it be overridden by a subclass of Account, like SavingsAccount?

equals method In class Object, the header for the equals method is this: public boolean equals(Object obj) If we want to override this method, we must make sure our equals method has the SAME signature. Does anyone recall what a signature contains?

Good design principle It should be apparent that in a case like the one we're doing now, Bank Accounts, we don't ever want the data to be allowed to be invalid. Care must be taken to require that a class's variables cannot have invalid data at any time. e.g. We wouldn't want to allow ATM_Withdrawal_Per_Day_Limit to ever be negative. It doesn't make sense. Also, Account #'s typically have a valid range of possibilities. We certainly wouldn't want account_number to be public and therefore able to be changed to an invalid value. We make the appropriate instance variables private for just that reason. And then only allow them to be changed in a controlled way via methods with some testing in them. We'll put some testing in the code to handle this.

Protected vs. Private vs. Public subclasses have access to public and protected members of their superclass a class has access to all of its own members (whether they are private, protected or public) objects of a class have access only to the public members of the class (and the public members of the parent class(es)). Classes within the same package though are allowed to always access protected members --- but I don't recommend this. What does this mean for our Account program? What about inside the CheckingAccount class, what members of Account can we refer to? What about an object of type CheckingAccount --- does it have access to any of the members in Account?

Overloaded methods Overloaded methods are those that have the same name but different numbers or types of parameters. It has nothing to do with the super / subclass (parent / child) relationships that we've been talking about. Does anyone remember when we used Overloaded methods?

Account Program Let's continue to implement Account, CheckingAccount, SavingsAccount – toString() – equals(Object o) – Add set methods, get methods Deposit, withdraw methods (instead of setBalance) – Create objects

Abstract classes – Can never be instantiated – Can contain both abstract methods and actual (non-abstract) methods – Can contain instance variables as well as constants If a class contains any abstract methods then it MUST BE an abstract class But an abstract class is not required to have abstract methods Abstract classes are different from interfaces which we will see next.

More on overriding methods Suppose we have a class Pet, Dog, and Cat. We provide a speak() method in Pet but with no body. Then, any class that inherits from Pet, must implement this method. Further, let's assume we have a class TalkingDog which doesn't bark when he speaks, instead he speaks English. To implement this stuff...

Class Pet, Dog and Cat Let's suppose all Pets have names, breeds and make sounds, and know how to sleep. Let's also suppose that different Dogs have different skills, but different Cats do not. Data to be stored in Pet is: – Name – Type (cat, dog, etc.) – Breed Additional data to be stored in Dog is: – Skill No additional data is stored in Cat. Let's set up the classes with these data and the relationships among the classes.

More on overriding methods So we have classes Pet (abstract), Dog, and Cat. We can provide a speak() method in Pet with no body (and we make it abstract). Then, any class that inherits from Pet, must implement this method. We can provide an actual method sleeps() in Pet that is not abstract. And the class TalkingDog which doesn't bark when he speaks, instead he speaks English. So, Dog and Cat inherit from Pet. TalkingDog inherits from Dog. Let's implement this stuff (instantiate objects of Dog, Cat, and TalkingDog) Note: because Pet contains an abstract method, the class is not instantiable --- the class itself must be declared as abstract.

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