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7M701 1 Class Diagram advanced concepts. 7M701 2 Characteristics of Object Oriented Design (OOD) objectData and operations (functions) are combined 

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Presentation on theme: "7M701 1 Class Diagram advanced concepts. 7M701 2 Characteristics of Object Oriented Design (OOD) objectData and operations (functions) are combined "— Presentation transcript:

1 7M701 1 Class Diagram advanced concepts

2 7M701 2 Characteristics of Object Oriented Design (OOD) objectData and operations (functions) are combined  object Objects arte abstractions of real-world or system entities and manage themselves. Objects are independent and encapsulate state and represent information. System functionality is expressed in terms of object services. Objects communicate by message passing.

3 7M701 3 Objects are abstractions of real-world entities. Objects encapsulate state and represent information. Object’s state is protected. Objects have responsibility. Objects interact by interfaces.

4 7M701 4 Conceptions Encapsulation Information hiding Responsibility

5 7M701 5 Encapsulation Encapsulation is the grouping of related ideas into one unit, which can thereafter be referred to by a single name. Object-oriented encapsulation is the packaging of operations and attributes representing state into an object type so that state is accessible or modifiable via the interface provided by the encapsulation.

6 7M701 6 Information hiding Information hiding is the use of an encapsulation to restrict from external visibility certain information decisions that are internal to the encapsulation structure.

7 7M701 7 Responsibility Object oriented design is a responsibility driven design approach. Objects have responsibilities that they prove oneself. Therefore, collaboration with other objects is needed.

8 7M701 8 Objects and object classes Objects are entities in a software system which represent instances of real-world and system entities Object classes are templates for objects. They may be used to create objects Object classes may inherit attributes and services from other object classes

9 7M701 9 An object is an entity which has a state and a defined set of operations which operate on that state. The state is represented as a set of object attributes. The operations associated with the object provide services to other objects (clients) which request these services when some computation is required. Objects are created according to some object class definition. An object class definition serves as a template for objects. It includes declarations of all the attributes and services which should be associated with an object of that class. Objects

10 7M701 10 Class diagrams Class diagrams are the most commonly used diagrams in UML. Class diagrams are for visualizing, specifying and documenting the system from a static perspective. Class diagrams indicate which classes know about other classes and, if they do, what type of relationship exists. Class diagrams help in showing the functional requirements of the system by the services the system should provide to its end-users.

11 7M701 11 Relationship between diagrams

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13 7M701 13 Advanced Class Features

14 7M701 14 Advanced Class Concepts : Visibility Visibility – class members (attributes, operations) may be specified as: {we have feature f, an attribute or operation that is defined on an object O of class C } +: public {f is public  f is visible to any object and f is inherited by the subclasses of C.} # : private {f is private  f is visible only to O and f is not inherited by the subclasses of C.} - : protected (f is protected  f is visible only to objects of class C and to objects of C’s subclasses and f is inherited by the subclasses of C.} Restricting visibility is the same as restricting accessibility.

15 7M701 15 Advanced Class Concepts : Scope Individual member data (= attributes) may have: Class scope : a single copy of an attribute is shared by all instances of a class. Instance scope : each instance of a class would have its own copy of the attribute.

16 7M701 16 Advanced Class Concepts : Abstract An operation is abstract if it has no implementation. A abstract class cannot have any direct instances. Abstract classes only occur in the context of an inheritance hierarchy. Abstract operations and classes are specified by writing its name in italics.

17 7M701 17 Advanced Class Concepts : Abstract

18 7M701 18 Interfaces and Abstract Classes One can vary the interfaces of classes independent of the implementation. A pure interface is a class with no implementation and, therefore has operation declarations but no method bodies an fields. Interfaces are often declared through abstract classes.

19 7M701 19 Window as Abstract Class

20 7M701 20 Interfaces and Abstract Class Sub classing is not only the way to do this. For instance Java provides an interface construct, and the compiler checks that the implementing class provides implementations of all the interface’s operations.

21 7M701 21 Lollipop notation for Interfaces

22 7M701 22 Aggregation and Composition Aggregation is a special form of association that specifies a whole-part relationship between the aggregate (the whole) and a component (the part); aggregation is the part-of relationship. { it is a special form of association in which a collection of objects, each having an independent existence, is associated with an single object} {unfilled diamond} Composition is a form of aggregation with strong ownership and coincident lifetime of the parts by the whole; the part object may belong to only one whole – the parts are usually expected to live and die with the whole. (usually, any deletion of the whole is considered to cascade to the parts}{filled diamond}

23 7M701 23 Aggregation and Composition: Example

24 7M701 24 Alternative notation for Composition

25 7M701 25 Derived Associations and Attributes Derived associations and attributes can be calculated from other associations and attributes, respectively, on a class diagram. For example, an age attribute of a Person can be derived if you know that Person’s date of birth.

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27 7M701 27 Qualified Associations The qualifier specifies how a specific object at the many end of the association is identified, and may be seen as a kind of key separating all the objects in the association.

28 7M701 28 Relations and Constraints

29 7M701 29 Object Diagram Shows a set of objects and their relationships. Illustrates instances of things found in class diagrams. Represents the static design view.

30 7M701 30 Object Diagram : Example

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