2 Theoretical Foundations Study of abnormal child behavior requires an understanding of developmental processes and of individual and situational events that can influence the course and direction of a particular childTheories allow us to predict behavior based on samples of knowledgeStudy of the etiology of childhood disorders considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact to produce outcomes over time
3 Theoretical Foundations (cont.) Underlying Assumptionsabnormal development is multiply determinedthe child and the environment are interdependent and interact dynamically (called the “transactional” or “relational” view)abnormal development involves continuities and discontinuities, with both quantitative and qualitative changes in patterns of behavior over time
4 Theoretical Foundations (cont.) An Integrative Approachabnormal child behavior is best studied from a multi-theoretical perspective
5 Developmental Considerations Adaptational failure is the failure to master or progress in accomplishing developmental milestonesOrganization of Developmentimplies an active, dynamic process of continual change and transformationsensitive periods are windows of time during which environmental influences on development are enhanceddevelopment proceeds in an organized, hierarchical way
6 Developmental Psychopathology Perspective (cont.) Figure 2.2 A developmental overview
7 Developmental Considerations (cont.) Developmental Psychopathology Perspectivean approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood and adolescence in a way that stresses the importance of developmental processes and tasksviewed as a macroparadigmto understand maladaptive behavior, one must view it in relation to what is considered normative
8 Developmental Psychopathology Perspective (cont.) Figure 2.3 Developmental psychopathology as a macroparadigm. Based on Achenback, 1990).
9 Biological Perspectives A neurobiological perspective considers brain and nervous system functions as underlying causes of psychological disordersNeural Plasticity and the Role of Experience:the brain shows neural plasticity (i.e., malleability; use-dependent anatomical differentiation) throughout the course of developmentexperience plays a role in brain development, with transaction occurring between ongoing brain development and environmental experiences; these experiences may include early care-giving
10 Biological Perspectives (cont.) Neural Plasticity and the Role of Experience (cont.)maturation of the brain is an organized, hierarchical process with brain structures changing and growing through the life spanas the brain is shaped by early experiences, consequences of traumatic experience may be difficult to change
11 Biological Perspectives (cont.) Genetic Contributions:any trait a child has results from an interaction of environmental and genetic factorsvery few specific genetic causes have been isolated or identified as the underlying cause of psychopathologygenes do not determine behaviorgenetic contributions to psychological disorders come from many genes that each make relatively small contributions
12 Biological Perspectives (cont.) Neurobiological Contributions:different areas of the brain regulate different functions and behaviorsthe endocrine system regulates certain processes in the body through the production of hormones; especially implicated in health- and stress-related disorders
13 Biological Perspectives (cont.) Figure 2.4 Structures of the brain. Source: Adapted from Brain and Behavior, by Bob Garrett.
14 Biological Perspectives (cont.) Figure 2.5 Structures of the limbic system. Source: Adapted from Brain and Behavior, by Bob Garrett.
15 Biological Perspectives (cont.) Neurobiological contributions (cont.)hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in several disorders, especially anxiety and mood disordersneurotransmitters make biochemical connections between different parts of the brain; those most commonly implicated in psychopathology include seratonin, benzodiazepine-GABA, norepinephrine, and dopamine
16 Psychological Perspectives Emotional Influences:emotions tell us what to pay attention to and provide motivation for actionchildren may have difficulties in emotion reactivity or emotion regulationtemperament shapes the child’s approach to the environment and vice versa
17 Psychological Perspectives (cont.) Behavioral and Cognitive Influences:Applied Behavior Analysis explains behavior as a function of its antecedents and consequencesclassical conditioning explains the acquisition of problem behavior in terms of paired associations between previously neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimulisocial learning considers the influence of cognitive mediators, affect, and contextual variables in the etiology and maintenance of behaviorssocial cognition relates to how children think about themselves and others
18 Family, Social, and Cultural Influences Ecological modelsdescribe the child’s environment as a series of nested and interconnected structures
19 Family, Social, and Cultural Influences (cont.) Figure 2.8 An ecological model of environmental influences.
20 Family and Social Influences (cont.) Evolution and Attachmentattachment theory emphasizes the evolving child-caregiver relationship, which helps the child to regulate behavior and emotions, especially in conditions of threat or stress4 patterns of attachment, which reflect different types of internal working models, have been identified: secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious-resistant, and disorganized
21 Family and Social Influences (cont.) The Family and Peer Contextincreasingly, the study of individual factors and the study of the child’s context are being seen as mutually compatible and beneficial to both theory and interventionfamily system theorists study children’s behavior in relation to other family members