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Learning Characteristics in Math Chapter 7

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Cognitive Deficits in Math Neurological deficits: conflicting results across studies Memory deficits: perceptual register (see Figure 3:3) and short-term memory Language deficits: underlying factor particularly in word problems

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Cognitive Deficits in Math Cont. Spatial deficits: inability to perceive spatial relationships Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: stem from brain functions on the right side of the brain – spatial orientation, mathematical understanding, and the ability to determine relationship between objects in space.

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Types of Math Learning Disabilities Conceptual understanding Written number symbol system Procedural steps of computation Application of arithmetic skills Poor calculation strategies Counting sequences Language of math Basic number facts Problem solving Lack of automaticity Poor word problem strategies

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Early Math Skills Numeration: knowledge of the words to say when counting on fingers One-to-one relationship: when holding up a new finger, another word is required Sequencing: correct order for the numeral names for each finger

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Assessment of Early Math Skills Ask child to count objects to at least 21 Ask child what number comes after a given number For place value – draw 10 boxes and 1 rectangular box that equals the length of the 10 boxes. 10 boxes = 1 large one Write a number and ask child to draw figures to represent given number

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Math Facts and Automaticity Speed in recalling math facts Move away from hand calculation of math facts Provide repeated exposure and reinforcement for mastery of the facts by rote memory

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Strategies Linking: if the child knows 5+5 teach them for 5+6 just count up from there Count-by: count by the multiplier a specific number of times (e.g., count by 3’s, 4’s,5’s etc.)

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Word Problems Difficulty excluding irrelevant information Difficulty identifying cue words to identify the proper operation (e.g., took away, how many more) see 7.6

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