# Providence University College of Management Results Wu-Lin Chen Department of Computer Science and Information Management.

## Presentation on theme: "Providence University College of Management Results Wu-Lin Chen Department of Computer Science and Information Management."— Presentation transcript:

Providence University College of Management Results Wu-Lin Chen (wlchen@pu.edu.tw) Department of Computer Science and Information Management

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 2 Results The result section of the report presents the findings of the study in both figures and written text. Figures (graphs, tables, and diagrams) present the complete findings in numerical terms. The accompanying text helps the reader to focus on the most important aspects of the results and to interpret them.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 3 Text in Results The text in the result section consists of three basic elements on information. –Element 1: a statement that locates the figures where the results can be found. –Element 2: statements that present the most important findings. –Element 3: statements that comment on the results.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 4 Alternate Short Text Elements 1 and 2 (combined): statements that present the most important results and that indicate in parentheses the figure where they can be found. Element 3: statements that comment on the results. Example: Caffeine was somewhat more potent than theophylline in preventing leaf-eating (Figure 1). In contrast, caffeine has been reported elsewhere to be ten times weaker than theophylline as an adenosine antagonist.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 5 Commenting on Results – Two Patterns Two ways to order your comment statements –Alternating Pattern: Put a short comment (one or two sentences) after each significant result you mention. –Sequential Pattern: Leave your comments until all the results have been mentioned.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 6 Two Patterns For Ordering Comments Sequential PatternR 1 +R 2 +R 3 +C Alternating PatternR 1 +C 1 ; R 2 +C 2 ; R 3 +C 3 R = Results (Element 2); C = Comments (Element 3) Note: The alternating pattern is best if you have many individual results with specific comments about each result. The sequential pattern is used when there are several individual results to which one general comment applied.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 7 Functions of Comments The comments (Element 3) in results sections may serve a variety of different functions. Comments may: –generalize from the results –explain possible reasons for the results –compare the results with results from other studies

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 8 Choose Verb Tense for Results In Element 1, use the present tense to locate your data in a figure. –EX: Results of the t-tests are presented in Table 1. –EX: Table 4 summarizes the test results on precontaminated insulators. Note: locational statements can be written in either the active or passive voice.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 9 Choose Verb Tense for Results When you report your findings (Element 2), use the past tense. –EX: As a group, divorced mothers spent over twice as much time in employment as married mothers (Figure 2). –EX: The coefficient of correlation was found to be significant at.001 level. Note: In some field such as engineering and economics, authors may present their findings in the present tense.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 10 Choose Verb Tense for Results When commenting on the findings (Element 3), it is conventional to use the present tense or modal auxiliaries.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 11 Comments on The Results When the comment compares your results with the results of other studies, use the present tense. –EX: This is consistent with earlier findings suggesting that personal characteristics are not related to attrition and teaching.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 12 Comments on The Results When the comment gives a possible explanation for the results, use a modal auxiliary. –EX: These results can (may) be explained by considering the voltage distribution on 230 kV insulators during freezing conditions.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 13 Comments on The Results When the comment generalizes from the results, use may. –EX: Hyperactive children may be generally responsive to amphetamines.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 14 Comments on The Results You may also use tentative verbs in the present tense instead of modal auxiliaries to generalize from results. –EX: It appears (seems or is likely) that hyperactive children are generally responsive to amphetamines. –EX: These results suggest that children who display learning problems are depending on only one cerebral hemisphere.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 15 Presenting Different Types of Findings: Comparisons Among Groups If you studies involve a comparison among groups (often one or more experimental groups with a control group), Element 2 statements are often written using comparative or superlative expressions. Group 1ComparisonGroup 2 The professional athleteshad faster eye movementsthan our other subjects. The highest incidence of Otitis Mediawas found among Australian Indians. Quartz I reactorshad a higher mass flowthan Quartz II. SuperlativeGroup 1

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 16 Presenting Different Types of Findings: Fluctuation of A Variable Over Time To report the findings show the tendency of a variable to fluctuate over time, use expressions of variation or special verbs of variation in your Element 2 statements. VariablePhrase of variationTime period Pricesa tendency to increaseover three-year period. The percentage of female students to decline in the second half of the decade. Verb showed tended

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 17 Presenting Different Types of Findings: Fluctuation of A Variable Over Time VariableVerb of variationTime period The concentration of sulfur dioxide rose fell increased decreased dropped remained constant declined over the period studied.

Technical Writing S03 Providence University 18 Presenting Different Types of Findings: Relationship Between Two or More Variables When you report the relationship of one variable with another, or relationships among variables, it is common to use verbs of correlation or association in Element 2. Variable XVerb of correlation / associationVariable Y Choice of locationwas correlated with negatively correlated with associated with marital status. Dry weight of top growth was not highly significantly closely related to total nitrogen.

Download ppt "Providence University College of Management Results Wu-Lin Chen Department of Computer Science and Information Management."

Similar presentations