angina pectoris atherosclerosis basal metabolic rate body mass index (BMI)body mass index (BMI) cardiovascular diseasescardiovascular diseases coronary heart disease (CHD)coronary heart disease (CHD) degenerative diseasesdegenerative diseases diabetes mellitus hemorrhagic strokehemorrhagic stroke hyperlipidemia hyperplastic obesityhyperplastic obesity hypertension
hypertrophic obesity infectious diseases isocaloric state law of energy balancelaw of energy balance myocardial infarction negative caloric balancenegative caloric balance obesity osteoporosis peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral vascular disease positive caloric balance spot reducing stroke thromboembolic stroke type I diabetes mellitustype I diabetes mellitus type II diabetes mellitustype II diabetes mellitus
The more physically active you are, the less likely you are to die prematurely. True or false? True. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are inversely related to mortality. This is true for all ages and both genders.
How can regular exercise decrease the risk of coronary heart disease? Active individuals are less likely to be obese. Active individuals are less likely to develop diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Regular aerobic exercise improves blood lipid profiles.
Name two ways that exercise can reduce the risk of stroke. It slows the development of atherosclerosis, which is associated with stroke. It has a favorable effect on hypertension, the major cause of hemorrhagic strokes.
How does exercise affect hypertension? Activity is inversely related to blood pressure as well as the risk of later development of hypertension.
How does physical activity affect peripheral vascular disease? Walking and jogging may stimulate the development of new arteries and capillaries in the thigh and calf muscles to compensate for blocked arteries.
The number of fat cells in the body is established during which three periods of rapid growth? 1.The latter part of gestation 2.The first year of infancy 3.The adolescent growth spurt
Why do people with hyperplastic or juvenile-onset obesity find it particularly difficult to lose weight? The number of fat cells remains constant in spite of weight gain or loss.
Name four ways that physical activity contributes to caloric expenditure. 1.Calories are expended during physical activity 2.Additional calories are expended after exercise 3.Physical activity helps to maintain the basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas caloric restriction alone usually results in a decrease in BMR 4.Moderate exercise does not increase and may decrease appetite
According to the ACSM, what are some characteristics of a desirable weight-loss program? Provides a caloric intake not lower than 1,200 kilocalories per day for adults Includes foods acceptable to the dieter Provides a negative caloric balance that results in not more than 1 kg of weight loss a week Includes behavior modification techniques to eliminate bad dieting habits Includes an endurance exercise program of at least three days per week, 20-60 minutes in duration, at a minimum intensity of 55 percent of maximum heart rate Creates new eating and exercise habits that can be continued for life
How can exercise help individuals with diabetes? Exercise can help type 1 diabetics by improving –control of blood glucose levels by increasing insulin sensitivity. Any program should be supervised by a physician. Exercise can help type 2 diabetics by improving –insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
What have epidemiological studies found regarding the relationship between physical activity and cancer? All forms considered together: –No consensus Physical activity and colon cancer: –Inverse relationship
What is the significance of the Frisch study of women who had competed in college athletics to cancer research? The results suggest that activity patterns during adolescence and early adulthood may influence the risk of developing cancer later in life.
How might physical activity reduce the risk of osteoporosis? During adolescence: –By aiding the development of bone mass and density During middle age and beyond: –By helping to maintain bone mass and density
What are four factors you should consider when developing an exercise program for post-menopausal women? The wrong type of exercise can do more harm than good Weight training can improve bone density while increasing muscular strength and balance Adequate calcium intake is essential Exercise is not a substitute for estrogen replacement therapy when prescribed
What are some effects of physical activity on mental health? More positive outlook Greater self-esteem Enhanced ability to respond to stressors Reduced symptoms of depression Positive effects on trait and state anxiety
What are four possible explanations for the positive effects of physical activity on mental health? Endorphins and enkephalins Brain neuroreceptors for monoamines Hormonal factors Changes in core body temperature
Physical Activity and Health, Women www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/women.htm Physical Activity and Weight Control www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/physact.htm American Obesity Association Homepage www.obesity.org National Osteoporosis Foundation www.nof.org