Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS A DSS ? Gorry and Scott-Morton’s:"— Presentation transcript:
1 WHAT IS A DSS ?Gorry and Scott-Morton’s:“A model based set of procedures for processing data and judgmentto assist a manager in his decision making.”According to them, to be successful, such system must be:- Simple- Robust- Easy to control- Adaptive- Complete on important issues- Easy to communicate with
2 Implicit in the definition is the assumption that : - The system is computer-based.- The system serves as an extension of the user’s problem solvingcapabilities.Gorry and Scott-Morton’s definition was accepted throughout mostof the 1970’s by practitioners and researchers.
3 Several other definitions emerged from the literature : Alter (1980), Moore and Chang (1980), Bonczek, Holsapple, andWhinston (1980), Keen (1980)The tableau below provides a good summary of their various views:Source DSS defined in term of________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Gorry and Scott-Morton Problem Type, System Function(support)Little System Function, Interface CharacteristicsAlter Usage Pattern, System ObjectivesMoore and Chang Usage Pattern, System CapabilitiesBonczek et al System ComponentKeen Development Process
4 Working definition of an ideal DSS: A DSS is an interactive, flexible, and adaptable CBIS that utilizes decision rules, models, and model base coupled with a comprehensive database and the decision maker own’s insights, leading to specific, implementable decisions in solving problems that would not be amenable to management science optimization models per se. Thus, a DSS supports complex decision making and increases its effectiveness.
6 Validation of the model Intelligence PhaseOrganizational ObjectivesSearch and scanning proceduresData collectionProblem IdentificationProblem classificationProblem statementExaminationRealityDesign PhaseValidation of the modelFormulate a modelSet criteria for choiceSearch for alternativesPredict and measure outcomesSuccessVerification, testing of proposed solutionChoice PhaseSolution to the modelSensitive analysisSelection of best alternativePlan for implementationDesign of a control systemImplementation ofsolutionFailure
7 Some Characteristics and Capabilities of DSS-I 1. DSS provides support for decision makers mainly in unstructured andsemi structured situations. DSS is different from EDP, TP and MIS.2. Support is provided for various managerial levels3. Support is provided to individuals as well as groups - GDSS.4. DSS provides support for interdependent as well as sequentialdecisions5. DSS supports all phases of decision making process : Intelligencedesign, choice and implementation6. Support is provided for a variety of decision problems.7. DSS must be adaptive over time
8 Some Characteristics and Capabilities of DSS - Contd. 8. DSS should be easy to use.9. DSS improves the effectiveness of decision making (accuracy,timeliness and quality) rather than efficiency (computer time closeform solution).10. Decision maker has complete control over all steps of the decisionmaking process in solving the problems.11. DSS leads to learning.12. Should be easy to construct (?)Should be easy to alter by its users.
9 Box 3.2: The Major Benefits of DSS 1. Ability to support the solution of complex problems.2. Fast response to unexpected situations that result in changedconditions. A DSS enables a thorough, quantitative analysis in avery short time. Even frequent changes in a scenario can beevaluated objectively in a timely manner.3. Ability to try several different strategies under differentconfigurations, quickly and objectively.4. New insights and learning. The user can be exposed to new insightsthrough the composition of the model and an extensive sensitivity“what if” analysis. The new insights can help in traininginexperienced managers and other employees as well.5. Facilitated communication. Data collection and model constructionexperimentations are being executed with active users’ participation,thus greatly facilitating communication among mangers. Thedecision process can make employees more supportive oforganizational decisions. The “what-if” analysis can be used tosatisfy skeptics, in turn improving teamwork.
10 Box 3.2: The Major Benefits of DSS-continued 6. Improved management control and performance. DSS can increasemanagement control over expenditures and improve performance ofthe organization.7. Cost savings. Routine applications of a DSS may result inconsiderable cost reduction, or in reducing (eliminating) the cost ofwrong decisions.8. Objective decisions. The decisions derived from DSS are moreconsistent and objective than decisions made intuitively.9. Improving managerial effectiveness, allowing managers to perform atask in less time and/or with less effort. The DSS provides managerswith more “quality” time for analysis, planning, and implementation.
11 Support Provided by DSS DSS may provide several types of support. The following structure is based on Alter(1). Each level of support contains and adds on the previous level (but may also contribute to the previous level).DSS Answers toProvides Questions:Raw data and status access What is ?General analysis capabilities What is / Why ?Representation models (financial What will be ?statements). Casual models (forecastingdiagnosis) What will be / Why ?Solution suggestions, evaluation What if ?Solution selection What is best / What is good enough ?
12 1 2 14 decisions For managers at different levels Knowledge 13 3 Semi structureddecisionsFor managers atdifferent levelsKnowledge133ModelingFor groups andindividuals124Ease ofconstructionInterdependent orsequential decisionsDSS1155EvolutionaryusageSupport, intelligence,design, choice106Humans controlthe machineSupport variety ofdecision stylesand processes97Effectiveness ,not efficiency8Adaptability andFlexibilityEase ofUse
13 Components of DSS1. Data includes database(s) which contains all the relevant data forthe problem and is managed by software called databasemanagement system.2. Model ManagementThe software package that includes financial statistical, managementscience, other quantitative models that provide the system analyticalcapabilities, and an appropriate software management.3. Communication(Dialog) SubsystemThe subsystem through which the user can communicate with andcommand DSSThese components contribute the software portion of the DSS. Also the manager(or user) is considered a part of the problem solving system.
14 Conceptual Model of DSS Other computer -based systemsData: external and internalDataManagementModelManagementKnowledgemanagerDialogmanagementManager (user)and tasks
15 The Capabilities of a DBMS in a DSS - Capture/extracts data for inclusion in a database- Quickly updates (adds, deletes, edits and changes)- Quickly retrieves data from database for queries and reports- Provides comprehensive data security ( protection fromunauthorized access and recovery capability)- Handles personal and official data query- Performs complex retrieval and data manipulation tasks basedon queries- Tracks usage of data
16 The Data Management Subsystem - DSS database- Database management system- Data directory- Query facility
18 On Data And Database System-I - Data external, internal and personal sources- External data are a available on thousands of online commercialdatabases, dictionaries, directories, reports, etc.- Data for DSS needs to be frequently in the field using one of theseveral methods- Data for DSS may have problems such as: incorrect data, non timelydata poorly measured and indexed data, too many data or no data- Large online databases such as CompuServe and Dow JonesInformation service can be a major source of DSS data.- DSS can be programmed with third-generation languages , but it isusually programmed with fourth-generation languages.- Fourth-generation system include many integrated features for datamanagement- Data are organized either in a relational, hierarchical or networkarchitecture. For many MSS relational type is preferable.-
19 On Data And Database System - Contd. - SQL is a standard access to relational database- There is a trend to have DSS (and other MSS) distributed vianetworks- Distributed DSS provide the benefit of a PC and the power of amainframe- Many DSS are being offered on client/server systems- Object-oriented databases are especially suitable for complex DSSsuch as those in computer integrated manufacturing- Object-oriented databases are easy to use and fast to access. They areespecially useful in distributed DSS- Many companies are developing an enterprise-wide approach to datamanagement. IBM’s Information Warehouse is an example
20 The model management subsystem - Model base - Model base management system- Model execution , Integration and commandThe ability to invoke run, change, combine and inspect models isa key capability of DSS which differentiates it from other CBIS.
21 The model base management system (MBMS) MBMS is a software system with the following functions :- Model creation- Using subroutines and other building block- Generation of new routines and reports- Model updating and changing- Data manipulationThe MBMS is capable of interrelating models with appropriate linkages through a database.
24 The Model directory - It is similar to the role of database directory. - Contains the catalog of all models- Contains models definitions- Answers all questions about model’s capability and availability.
25 The Interface (Dialog) subsystem The dialog component is the software and hardware that provides the user interface for DSS.- Deals with the human-machine interactions- Uses action language to allow communication between user(s) and machine.- Uses presentation language - with graphic screen display…etc.- Uses knowledge base including information that the user must know.
26 Natural Language Processor Data Managementand DBMSKnowledgeManagementModel Managementand MBMSDialog Generation andManagement System-DGMSNatural Language ProcessorInput OutputTerminalAction DisplayLanguages LanguagesPrinters, PlottersUser
27 Create variety of DSS quickly and easily Overall CapabilitiesCreate variety of DSS quickly and easilyFacilitate iterative design processGeneral CapabilitiesEase of use Access to a variety of Access to a variety of analysisFor routine use, data source, types, and capabilities with some modification and formats for a variety of “suggestion” or guidanceconstruction of DSS problems and contexts. available.Component Capabilities