Evo-Devo: Development in an Evolutionary Context Control of eyespot development on a developing butterfly wing En/Inv expression Dll expression.
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Evo-Devo: Development in an Evolutionary Context Control of eyespot development on a developing butterfly wing En/Inv expression Dll expression
Signal transduction: an extracellular signal is changed to an intracellular functional change Gene regulation and evolution Activation of transcription factors
Probe used to identify mRNA from bone morphogenic protein-4 gene Regulated expression One gene that affects beak size and shape Upper beak bud
Things to consider Many genes (and proteins) are homologous across evolutionarily diverse groups. Therefore, many evolutionary changes are based on controlling the expression of homologous genes Temporal control – Expression at different times – Expression ffor different lengths of time Spatial control – Expression in different places (tissues). Examples: plants in Solanaceae; Darwin finch beak development
Homeotic Genes and Animal Body Plans Bilaterally symmetrical animals develop in four dimensions. 3 spatial + temporal Each cell has to have 1. location information: where it is relative to other cells 2. time: what is presently taking place in the developmental sequence. Homeotic genes (Hox genes): (1) transcription factors determine which (2) structural genes are activated to produce (3) particular structures.
Cells or tissues located along the major body axes use positional information during development (After Strickberger.) Location information from what gene products are present
Hox genes in Drosophila (body segmentation) Occur in clusters (gene duplication) Provides positional information Hox Gene Cluster Where genes are expressed Colinearity: 1. Time of expression 2. A-P axis 3. Quantity of transcription factors Morphogens = signal polypeptides
Each Hox gene contains a highly conserved 180 bp sequence – the homeobox. Codes for a DNA binding segment (aa sequence) in the transcription factor. Activation of structural genes produce structures appropriate for that location. Mutations in Hox genes result in inappropriate structures for that location.
Mutations in Hox genes bx, pbx, and abx 1 pair of wings normally develop on body segment T2 Hox mutations change identity of T3 cells to T2 cells. Appendages appropriate for a T2 Location are produced. Ancestors of dipteran flies had 4 wings. Mutation of Hox gene antp Location information changes Rather than head segment location Cells respond as if they are in a thoracic segment
Diversification of animals (e.g. Cambrian “explosion” and beyond Hox gene diversification Hox homologues: in everything from sponges to humans to fungi and plants (MADS-box genes). Therefore, Homeobox genes predate the origin of animals. Example of diversification: Arthropoda Over 1 million sp. described; millions more waiting for recognition and description Exoskeleton; segmented body (H–T–A) and segmented legs Paired appendages on body segments; open circulatory system
An onychophoran (velvet worm) Closest living relative of arthropods 1 pr. unjointed legs on each of the similar body segments Hexapods Chilicerates CrustaceansMyriapods