Presentation on theme: "Adolescence Three stages of adolescence:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Adolescence Three stages of adolescence: Early (10-14 years)The main deal: Puberty! (for better or worse…)Middle (15-17 years)The main deal: Contact with peers becomes crucial.Late (18-20 years)The main deal: Transition to adulthood.Most participants in studies reviewed in the Anhalt & Morris chapter (2003) are between 14 and 20 years old, with most participants 15 and older.
2 What are the most important things about GLB adolescence? Gender Non-ConformitySame-Gender Sexual Behavior and Identification as GLBComing OutDating and Love Relationships
3 The First Two… Gender Non-Conformity As we’ve previously discussed, children on their way to being GLB may have cross-gender behaviors (especially boys)Same-Gender Sexual Behavior and Identification as GLBMost studies since the 1970s focus on sexual behavior, not thoughts, attractions, feelings, or fantasies, and show:3-17% of adolescent boys, and 6% of adolscent girls, have had one or more same-gender sexual experiencesIn a 1992 study of a large, diverse sample of mostly white Minnesota adolescents:4.5% had same-gender attractions, and 2.6% had same-gender fantasies88% identified as straight, 11% as questioning, 1% as GLB
4 Coming OutTo self: I recognize a number of things about myself and my life and get it: “I’m a lesbian!”First awareness of same-gender attraction: years old for bi/lesbian young women, 9-13 years old for bi/gay young menFirst same-gender sexual experience: years old for bi/lesbian young women, years old years old for bi/gay young menFirst self-identifying as GLB: years old for bi/lesbian young women, years old for bi/gay young menTo others: I tell friends, family, coworkers, people on the bus: “I’m gay!” or “I’m bi!”First disclosure to people: two years following self-identification for bi/lesbian young women, years old for bi/gay young menBoth are usually a series of steps
5 Coming Out Outcomes of coming out: There’s a correlation between self-identifying, or coming out to oneself, and positive self-esteemDifficulty accepting GLB orientation means lower self-esteemDuh.Coming out to others is more of a stressor, however, because of the possibilities of:VictimizationFear and negative consequences
6 VictimizationIn a large 1995 study of a very diverse group of GLB adolescents nationwide:Average number of instances of victimization each participant experienced so far: 2.7Percentages of participants who experienced specific victimization based on sexual orientation:Verbal insults: 80%Threats of physical violence: 44%Objects thrown at them: 33%Being chased or followed: 31%Sexually assaulted: 22%Physically assaulted (hit, kicked, punched): 20%Spit on: 13%
7 Fear & Negative Consequences In the same study/others:67% of participants said thinking about coming out to family is somewhat to extremely troubling22% feared verbal abuse and this made them less likely to come out to family36% of youths verbally assaulted by immediate family member (related to sexual orientation)10% experienced physical harm from family member (related to sexual orientation)Stress is compounded by changes in the relationship to the family member27% of young women/36% of young men fear losing friends by coming out to them54% of young women/43% of young men report actually losing friends by coming outThis is more stressful in adolescence than other times…
8 Adjustment Issues for GLB Adolescents Suicide AttemptsRisk Factors for Suicide AttemptsConduct ProblemsSubstance Use/Problems with Substance UseAcademic Difficulties
9 A poster from www.belongto.org BeLonG To is a Youth Project, funded by the Department of Education, which was set up in March 2003 for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) young people.Since then, the project has been working with LGBT young people, providing them with a safe, relaxed, comfortable environment, where they can make friends with other young people in similar situations and find support, inclusion, acceptance and social justice. They also have the option of one-to-one support and access to information on education, health and legal services.