HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Management & Project Management Running an information systems project calls for ability in all management.
Published byModified over 5 years ago
Presentation on theme: "HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Management & Project Management Running an information systems project calls for ability in all management."— Presentation transcript:
1 HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Management & Project Management Running an information systems project calls for ability in all management disciplines, but the short-term nature of project work demands special application, discipline, and technique.Concentration of effort calls for a special kind of manager and focus of management activity.
2 Long-term return on investment Service …. etc HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Management & Project ManagementThe objectives and focus of most long-term and ongoing IS management activities are geared to factors for:SurvivalGrowthLong-term return on investmentService …. etcThese are objectives that necessitate flexible strategies and long-term perspectives.
3 HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Management & Project Management Project management - in contrast to IS management - is focused upon the essentially limited term of the project life cycle, the day-to-day and step-by-step progress.Leadership and team development are vital ingredients of project management, but in terms of day-to-day activity, planning and control are still dominant.
4 HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Managing Expectations IT managers must be able to anticipate the challenges arising from the volatility of technology, and from evolving technology’s impact on the organisation’s structure and economics.Well-prepared managers seek to understand the nature and scope of these issues, and are prepared to plan for, and control their consequences.
5 HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Managing Expectations IT management must be able to manage expectations effectively.In particular, senior executive will have the expectation that the use of information technology will deliver competitive advantage and financial payoffs for the organisation.Information about technology is a major basis of expectations, and senior IT managers must respond to these expectations in a disciplined and mature manner.
6 HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Managing Expectations IT managers must have a clear and realistic view of technology trends, and an accurate understanding of the organisation’s technological maturity.The degree of technological maturity will directly impact the organisation’s ability to directly take up the technology.This knowledge is essential for providing the executive of an organisation with the information upon which reasonable expectations can be built.
7 HIT241 - Management and Information Systems Managing Expectations The expectations held by the executives of an organisation will be the basis by which IT managers performance will be measured. It does not matter where expectations originate, or whether they are realistic - completely fulfilling expectations will lead to a satisfactory performance appraisal.IT managers must therefore appreciate the importance of expectations, and should work proactively to set and achieve expectations.
8 HIT241 - Project Integration Management Introduction Project Integration Management is the coordination of all project management knowledge areas throughout a project’s life cycle.It ensures that all the elements of a project come together at the right times to complete a project successfully. The main processes are:1. Project Plan Development2. Project Plan Execution3. Overall Change Control
9 HIT241 - Project Integration Management Framework for P.I.M. SuccessScopeTimeCostQualityHuman ResourcesCommun-icationsRiskProcure-mentProject Integration ManagementKnowledge AreasConcept Developemt Implementation Close-outProject Life Cycle Phases
10 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development A project plan is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents, and help guide the projects execution and control.Project plans should be flexible, dynamic and subject to change when the environment or project changes.Integration management must be practiced when preparing a project plan as it utilises information from all the project management knowledge areas.
11 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development It is essential to tailor project plans to fit the specific needs projects. However, the following are common elements of most project plans:An introduction or overview.Description of how the project is organised.The management and technical processes to be used.The work to be performed.The schedule.The budget.
12 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development The Introduction /Overview should include:A unique project name.A brief description of the project, and the need that it addresses.The project sponsor’s name.Names of the project manager and key team members.The project deliverables.A list of important reference materials – including any relevant histories – and a list of definitions and acronyms if needed.
13 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development The description of project organisation should include:Corporate organisational charts – for project sponsor and the customer - and a project organisational chart.Project responsibilities, most often in the form of a RAM (responsibility responsibility matrix – see lecture on project HR management).Other relevant organisational or process related data (architectural models, business models etc).
14 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development The management and technical approaches section should include:Management objectives.Project controls for monitoring progress and handling changes.Risk management.Project staffing.Technical processes, especially any specific methodologies, standards and formats to be followed.
15 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development The description of work to be done should include:The major work packages for the project, with appropriate links to the scope management plan (more later).A list and description of the key deliverables produced by the project.Other key work related information – for example a specific hardware component to use on the project.
16 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development The project schedule should include:A one page summary of the overall project schedule, showing key deliverables and completion dates.A detailed project schedule that referenced the schedule management plan, and discusses the dependencies among project schedule activities that could affect the project schedule.Other schedule-related information, especially the assumptions made in preparing the project schedule.
17 Project Integration Management Project Plan Development The budget section should include:A summary budget that includes a total estimate of the overall project budget.A detailed budget that summarizes the contents of the cost management plan and includes more detailed budget information.Other budget-related information, especially the assumptions made in preparing the financial aspects of the project
18 Project Integration Management Project Plan Execution Project plan execution involves managing and performing the work described in the project plans. To do this successfully the project manager must:Coordinate project planning with project execution to ensure that good work is produced.Provide strong leadership and a supportive culture to promote the relationship between good planning and execution.Capitalise on product, business and application area knowledge to support the project.
19 Project Integration Management Integrated Change Control Integrated change control involves identifying, evaluating and managing changes throughout the project life cycle. The main objectives include:Influencing the factors that create changes to ensure that the changes are beneficial.Determining that a change has occurred, and communicating this to top management.Managing actual changes as they occur, and work to minimise the number of changes that occur.
20 HIT241 - Project Integration Management Role of the Project Manager The Project Manager has a critical role of:1. Co-ordinating all of the people, plans and work required to complete a project.2. Focusing upon the “big picture” and steering the project team to a successful completion.3. Making final decisions when there are conflicts between project goal, or among people.4. Communicating key project information to senior management.
21 HIT241 - Project Integration Management Organisational Context Project Integration Management must occur within the context of the whole organisation, not just a particular project. The work of the project must be integrated into the ongoing operations of the working organisation.Project Managers must always be able to view their projects in the context of the changing needs of their organisations, and respond to requests from senior management.
22 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Introduction One of the most important, but difficult aspects of project management is the defining of the scope of a project.Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of projects, and the processes used to create them.Project stakeholders must come into agreement on what the products of a project are to be and, to some extent, how they should be produced.
23 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Introduction Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is, or is not in a project. The main processes include:1. Initiation2. Scope Planning3. Scope Definition4. Scope Verification5. Scope Change Control
24 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Project Initiation Initiation involves committing the organisation to begin a project, or continue to the next phase of a project.A key output of the initiation processes is the project charter, a document that formally defines the projects existence, and provides a broad overview of the project.
25 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Project Initiation The first step in initiating projects is to look at the big picture or strategic plan of the organisation.Strategic planning involves:Determining long-term objectives.Analysing strengths and weaknesses.Studying opportunities and threats.Predicting future trends and projecting the need for new products and services.SWOT analysis is a popular tool used in strategic planning.
26 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Identifying Potential Projects Information Technology Planning StagesTie information technology strategy to mission & vision of organisation.Identify key business areas.InformationTechnologyStrategy PlanningDocument key business processes that could benefit from information technology.Business Area AnalysisDefine potential projects. Define project scope, benefits & constraints.Project PlanningSelect information technology projects. Assign resources.Resource Allocation
27 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Selecting Projects The selection of projects is one of judgement and decision-making, and is a critical part of project management. There are many methods to assist the selection process, four common techniques are:1. Focusing on the broad organisational needs, especially in terms of need, funding & will to succeed.2. Categorising information technology projects on the basis of problem response, opportunity, or directive.3. Performing financial analysis, including NPV (net present value), ROI, and payback analysis.4. Using a weighted scoring model based upon selection criteria.Organisations generally use a combination of these approaches, each method having both strengths and weaknesses.
28 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Project Charter A project charter is a document that formally recognises the existence of a project, and provides direction on the projects objectives and management. Key parts of a project charter include:Project Title and date of authorisation.Project Manager’s name and contact details.Brief scope statement for project.Summary of planned approach to manage projectRoles and responsibilities matrix.Sign-off for key project stakeholder signatures.Comments section to allow stakeholders to make important comments related to the project.
29 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Planning This involves the development of documents to provide the basis for future project decisions, including the criteria for determining if a project or phase has been successfully completed.A major outcome is the creation of a scope statement and a scope management plan.
30 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Planning A scope statement is the document that develops and confirms the common understanding of project scope. It should incorporate:The project justification.A brief description of the project’s products or services.A summary of project deliverables.The scope management plan., which describes the quantifiable criteria that must be met for project success - cost, schedule, and quality.
31 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Definition This is the process of subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.The major outcome of scope definition is the creation - by the project team - of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).
32 HIT241 - Project Scope Management WBS - Work Breakdown Structure A WBS is an outcome-oriented analysis of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope for the project.This provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs and changes. Therefore, the WBS identifies what work will be undertaken by a project.A WBS is usually organised around project products or project phases (examples in text - Fig 4-6a & b)
33 Project Scope Management WBS Example – By Product
34 Project Scope Management WBS Example – By Phase
35 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Verification This is the formal acceptance of project scope.Key project stakeholders - project customers, sponsors etc - formally accept the plan for project deliverables.The plan for project deliverables is the clear documentation of the project’s products, and procedures for evaluating if they were completed correctly and satisfactorily.
36 HIT241 - Project Scope Management Scope Change Control During the project life cycle, action must be taken to control project scope. The main deliverables are:1. Scope changes2. Corrective action3. Lessons learnt.