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The Liver. Overview Anatomy Function Investigations Symptoms and signs –Jaundice –Encephalopathy –Hepatorenal –Cirrhosis –Portal vein thrombosis/ GIT.

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Presentation on theme: "The Liver. Overview Anatomy Function Investigations Symptoms and signs –Jaundice –Encephalopathy –Hepatorenal –Cirrhosis –Portal vein thrombosis/ GIT."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Liver

2 Overview Anatomy Function Investigations Symptoms and signs –Jaundice –Encephalopathy –Hepatorenal –Cirrhosis –Portal vein thrombosis/ GIT complications –Drugs –Metastasis Effect of CPB ITU management

3 Anatomy Largest organ in body RUQ Anatomical and functional differences Dual blood supply Microstructure Biliary system







10 Function Metabolism –Protein –Carbohydrate –Lipids –Lactate Bile acids Bilirubin metabolism Hormone and drug inactivation Immunological

11 Metabolism - Protein Synthesis –All major proteins except IgGs –Albumin and clotting factors except VIII Degradation –Amino acids –ammonia to urea to kidneys

12 Function albumin Osmotic Carrier for H 2 O insoluble substances

13 Metabolism - carbohydrate Glucose Sources –Sugars –Glycogen (glycogenolysis) –Lactate/Protein/amino acids (gluconeogenesis)

14 Metabolism - Lipids Fat / cholesterol Insoluble, transport proteins – lipoproteins Hypercholesterolaemia –HMGCoA reductase inhibitors LDL receptor

15 Metabolism - Lactate Glucose Pyruvate TCA cycle ATP Energy Oxygen Lactic acid No oxygen

16 Bile acids Formed from cholesterol –Cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid –Conjugated with lycine or taurine GIT absorption of lipids Cholestyramine sequesters

17 Bilirubin metabolism Formed from RBC breakdown –Myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases Hb Biliverdin Bilirubin –Glucuronic acid Bacteria form bilirubin Urobilinogen (enterohepatic circulation) –stool stercobilinigen –Urine urobilinogen

18 Hormone and drug inactivation Insulin Glucagon Oestrogen Growth hormone Parathormone Drug solubilisation

19 Immunological Reticuloendothelial –Phagocytic Kupffer’s cells Sieve for portal vein Tuftsin synthesis

20 Investigations Routine biochemistry Additional blood tests Imaging

21 Routine biochemistry Normal values do not exclude severe disease Bilirubin conjugated or unconjugated Aminotransferases –AST/SGOT –ALT/SGPT Alk Phos –Liver –Bile duct Gamma GT Serum proteins –Albumin –hyperglobulinaemia

22 Additional blood tests FBC –HB –WCC –Plt –Splenomegally / hypersplenism Alpha fetoprotein Autoantibodies

23 Imaging AXR/CXR –Stones –Size –Free air ? “Perf” USS Intrahepatic / extrahepatic CT






29 Symptoms and signs Acute verses chronic Acute –Yellow, pale stool dark urine Chronic –Every organ affected

30 Jaundice Gilberts syndrome –2 – 5 % population –Raised unconjugated Haemolytic –Acholuric jaundice Cholestatic –Intrahepatic –Extrahepatic Raised conjugated Choluric jaundice

31 The Brain / Encephalopathy / Alcohol Wernickes encephalopathy –Acute or chronic –Ammonia and potassium Korsakoff psychosis/syndrome Alcohol withdrawal Ataxia, nystagmus, confusion, heart failure in an alcoholic give Vitamin B 1 (thiamine)

32 Hepatorenal syndrome Renal failure in setting of deep jaundice Kidneys normal (can be used for transplantation) ? Circulating factor ? NSAID Keep well hydrated ? Use mannitol

33 Cirrhosis Degeneration / regeneration / fibrosis Multiple causes (alcohol most common) Think of all the livers functions Think stomach ulcers Think oesophageal varices

34 Portal vein thrombosis/ GIT complications Always think about in a –hypotensive, –hypoglycaemic, –acidotic, –? Not really bleeding but given clotting factors –Especially if deteriorates over a few hours or quicker

35 Metastasis Think about in all patients who have cancer Anatomical verses functional significance

36 Effect of CPB (peri and post op) Hypoperfusion particularly in cirrhosis –Reduced function Clotting Glucose Acid-base

37 Picking up liver disease Suspicion History eg alcohol LFTs Hypoglycaemia / severe acidosis GIT bleeds Clotting abnormality Fuscidic acid / paracetamol

38 ITU management - 1 THINK Glucose Acid-base balance Lactate Clotting (Vitamin K) Albumin Sepsis Alcohol withdrawal Varices / stomach ulcers Drugs

39 ITU management - 2 Gastric protection Thiamine Type of feed DVT prophylaxis Renal function Pressure sores / oedema N acetyl cysteine ALL TREATMENTS ARE SUPPORTIVE

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