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Distribution Channels and Logistics Management

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1 Distribution Channels and Logistics Management
Chapter 12 Distribution Channels and Logistics Management

2 What is a Distribution Channel?
A set of interdependent organizations (intermediaries) involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user. Marketing Channel decisions are among the most important decisions that management faces and will directly affect every other marketing decision.

3 Why are Marketing Intermediaries Used?
The use of intermediaries results from their greater efficiency in making goods available to target markets. Offer the firm more than it can achieve on it’s own through the intermediaries: Contacts, Experience, Specialization, Scale of operation. Purpose: match supply from producers to demand from consumers.

4 How a Marketing Intermediary Reduces the Number of Channel Transactions

5 Distribution Channel Functions
These Functions Should be Assigned to the Channel Member Who Can Perform Them Most Efficiently and Effectively to Provide Satisfactory Assortments of Goods and Services to Target Customers. Risk Taking Information Financing Promotion Physical Distribution Contact Negotiation Matching

6 Consumer Marketing Channels
0-level channel Consmr Mfgr. 1-level channel Retailer Consmr Mfgr. 2-level channel Whlslr Retailer Consmr Mfgr. 3-level channel Whlslr Jobber Retailer Consmr Mfgr.

7 Industrial Marketing Channels
0-level channel Manufacturer Consumer Industrial distributors 1-level channel Manufacturer’s representative 2-level channel Manufacturer’s sales branch 3-level channel

8 Conventional Marketing Channel Vs. a Vertical Marketing System (Fig. 12.3)
Manufacturer Manufacturer Retailer Wholesaler Wholesaler Retailer Consumer Consumer

9 Channel Behavior & Conflict
The channel will be most effective when: each member is assigned tasks it can do best. all members cooperate to attain overall channel goals and satisfy the target market. When this doesn’t happen, conflict occurs: Horizontal Conflict occurs among firms at the same level of the channel, i.e retailer to retailer. Vertical Conflict occurs between different levels of the same channel, i.e. wholesaler to retailer. For the channel to perform well, each channel member’s role must be specified and conflict must be managed.

10 Channel Design Decisions
Analyzing Consumer Service Needs Setting Channel Objectives & Constraints Identifying Major Alternatives Channel Design Decisions Evaluating the Major Alternatives Designing International Distribution Channels Intensive Distribution Selective Distribution Exclusive Distribution

11 Channel Management Decisions
Selecting Channel Members Channel Management Decisions Motivating Channel Members Evaluating Channel Members FEEDBACK

12 Nature and Importance of Marketing Logistics
Involves getting the right product to the right customers in the right place at the right time. Companies today place greater emphasis on logistics because: customer service and satisfaction have become the cornerstone of marketing strategy. logistics is a major cost element for most companies. the explosion in product variety has created a need for improved logistics management. Improvements in information technology has created opportunities for major gains in distribution efficiency.

13 Major Logistics Functions
Order Processing Received Processed Shipped Costs Minimize Costs of Attaining Logistics Objectives Logistics Functions Warehousing Storage Distribution Automated Transportation Rail, Truck, Water, Pipeline, Air, Intermodal Inventory When to order How much to order Just-in-time

14 Transportation Modes Rail Truck Water Pipeline Air
Nation’s largest carrier, cost-effective for shipping bulk products, piggyback Truck Flexible in routing & time schedules, efficient for short-hauls of high value goods Water Low cost for shipping bulky, low-value, non perishable goods, slowest form Pipeline Ship petroleum, natural gas, and chemicals from sources to markets Air High cost, ideal when speed is needed or distance markets have to be reached

15 Choosing Transportation Modes
Checklist for Choosing Transportation Modes 1. Speed 2. Dependability 3. Availability 4. Costs 5. Others

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