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Biochemistry Chapter 2. Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass Mass The quantity of matter an object has.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry Chapter 2. Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass Mass The quantity of matter an object has."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry Chapter 2

2 Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass Mass The quantity of matter an object has

3 The Atom Atom The basic unit of matter Subatomic parts of the atom Proton (positively charged particle in nucleus) Neutron (neutral particle in nucleus) Electron (negatively charged particle found on valences outside the nucleus)

4 Element A pure substance that is comprised of a single atom Each element has its own atomic number equaling the number of protons it has 4 most common elements are C,H,O,N (96% of all living things) m/flash/elements.html m/flash/elements.html

5 Isotopes Isotope An element that has different numbers of neutrons Carbon 12, Carbon 13, Carbon 14 Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties Radioactive isotopes are isotopes that are unstable and breakdown over time

6 Chemical Compounds When two or more elements are combined they form a compound Compounds are formed when elements form bonds between them Ionic (electrons are transferred) NaCl Covalent (electrons are shared) H 2 0 Van der Waals Forces (polarity)

7 Ionic and Covalent Bonds

8 Properties of Water Polarity An uneven distribution of electrons causing positive and negative poles in one molecule

9 Water Cont’d Hydrogen bonding Weak bonds that hold water molecules together Adhesion (attraction between molecules of different substances) Cohesion (attraction between molecules of the same substance)  Allows for capillary action (water can defy gravity)

10 Props of H 2 0 Cont’d Solutions and suspensions Mixtures are 2 or more elements or compounds physically put together but do not chemically combine (salt and pepper) Solution – mixture in which the all components are evenly distributed in the solution Combination of solute (what is being dissolved) and solvent (what is doing the dissolving) i.e. saline solution

11 More Water Acid, bases, and pH Acid: compound that forms H+ ions in a solution. pH level 0-6 Base: compound that forms OH- ions in a solution. pH level 8-14 Buffers: weak acids or bases that react with strong acids and bases to prevent sudden changes in pH

12 Still More Water Properties Density (ice is less dense as a solid) High specific heat (takes a lot of energy to raise or lower temperature of water 1C) Surface tension (due to cohesion) Transparency (allows light to penetrate to aquatic plants)

13 Organic Chemistry Study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms Macromolecules (giant molecules) make up living things. Macromolecules are formed through polymerization Monomers join together to make polymers Basic math (add parts to make a whole)

14 4 Organic Compounds Macromolecules or biomolecules found in living things Carbohydrates (sugars) Lipids (fats and oils) Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) Proteins (chains of amino acids)

15 Carbohydrates Compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio Main source of energy for living things 3 types of sugars (saccharide) Monosaccharide (simple sugar – glucose) Disaccharide (2 sugars – sucrose) Polysacchride (many sugars – glycogen and starches)

16 Carbs

17 Lipids Biomolecules that are generally not soluble in water (don’t dissolve) Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms Fats, oils, and waxes Used to store energy and form parts on biological membranes (lipid bi-layers) Saturated and unsaturated

18 Lipid

19 Nucleic Acids Molecules containing C,H,O,N,P Polymer made up of monomers called nucleotides 5 carbon sugar A phosphate group Nitogenous base Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary or genetic information Two types DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid)

20 Nucleotide

21 DNA

22 Proteins Biomolecule made from C,H,O,N Polymer made up of monomers called amino acids Proteins have numerous responsibilities in living things Enzymatic Regulate cell processes Structural Transport Immune

23 Amino Acid

24 Protein

25 Chemical Reactions Process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals Involve breaking the bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products

26 Reactants and Products Reactants go into a chemical reaction Products are formed by a chemical reaction Examples CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O Identify which are the reactants and products in the above equations

27 Types of Reactions Energy Absorbing Reaction (Endergonic) Products have more energy than reactants Energy is stored Energy Releasing Reaction (Exergonic) Reactants have more energy than products Energy is given off Activation Energy Energy need to start a reaction

28 Which is Which?

29 Effect of Enzymes on Rxns A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction Enzymes are biological catalysts Therefore…enzymes speed up chemical reactions in cells

30 Enzymes on Rxns

31 The End Finally!

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