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Deny A. Kwary Airlanga University

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1 Deny A. Kwary Airlanga University
Word Formation Deny A. Kwary Airlanga University

2 Types of Word Formation
Compounding Conversion Clipping Blends Backformation Acronyms Onomatopoeia Eponyms

3 1. Compounding Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word. Examples: Home + work  homework Pick + pocket  pickpocket

4 Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts.
Note: The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts. Coconut oil  oil made from coconuts. Olive oil  oil made from olives. Baby oil  cathouse  blue-movies  blue-chip  oil for babies NOT oil made from babies a house where men visit prostitutes

5 2. Conversion Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category. Examples: butter (N)  to butter the bread permit (V)  an entry permit empty (A)  to empty the litter-bin

6 3. Clipping Definition: Shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables Examples: Facsimile  fax Hamburger  burger Gasoline  Advertisement  Omnibus 

7 4. Blends Definition: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted. Examples: Motor + hotel  Motel Breakfast + lunch  Brunch Wireless + Fidelity  Wi-Fi

8 Is this a blend?

9 Case Study: Blends or Compunds
‘Wild-haired revolutionaries like Che Guevara have been replaced by clean-cut metrosexual icons like soccer star David Beckham and musician Ricky Martin.’ (, 25th November 2003). ‘No botox for the Retrosexual. No $1,000 haircuts. The retrosexual man eats red meat heartily and at times kills it himself.’ (The Washington Dispatch, 2nd May 2004). Another recent coinage borne out of the current preoccupation with male stereotyping is the noun and adjective technosexual. (Macmillan Online, January 2005).

10 5. Back-formations Definition: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis. Examples: editor (1649)  edit (1791) television (1907)  televise (1927)

11 6. Acronyms Definition: Words derived from the initials of several words Examples: severe acute respiratory syndrome  SARS Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus  SCUBA

12 Other examples of Acronyms:
Radar FYI TGIF a.k.a Html www SWOT Radio detecting and ranging For Your Information Thanks God It’s Friday also known as Hypertext mark-up language World wide web Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

13 7. Onomatopoeia Definition: Words created to sound like the thing that they name. English Japanese Tagalog Indonesian Cock-a-doo Kokekokko Kuk-kakauk Kukuruyuk Meow Nya Niyaw Meong

14 8. Eponyms Definition: Words derived from proper names or things.
Examples: Kodak Sandwich Celcius

15 Complete the process and Identify the type of word formation:
1. Return on Investment  2. information, entertainment  3. modulator, demodulator  4. love, seat  5. International, police  6. A comb  7. delicatessen  8. Capt. Charles Cunningham Boycott  ROI  Infotainment  Modem  Loveseat  Interpol  To comb  Deli  Boycott  acronym blends compounding conversion clipping eponym

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