2 Phonetics: the sounds of language Not language-specificDescribes sounds produced in any or all languagesPhonology describes the sound patterns in particular languages, like English or ChineseFor exampleThis is how to make the sound [p]The consonant cluster /pr/ is OK in English, not in Chinese
3 Phones: sound segments When we know a language, we can segment an utterance into phonesWe can do this even though there is no break between phonesCat has 3 phonesBut we don’t say k—a—tIf we don’t know the language, we can’t do this segmentationIt just sounds like one continuous stream of soundActually all language is one continuous stream of soundThe tongue (and other moving parts) move graduallyThey don’t jump between positions
4 How many phones? Say them to your neighbor. Dog?Rabbit?PhoneKnotCombChina
5 Two kinds of phone: consonants and vowels Consonants: air flow from lungs is obstructed in some way (p48)Vowels: the air flows freelyThis is why doctors ask for “aaaahhh”Vowels are often represented in English spelling by a e i o uBut spelling pronunciation (p40)Chinese:The consonants are ㄅㄆㄇㄈ…The vowels are ㄚㄛㄜㄝ… (but not always)
6 Problems with consonant-vowel distinction Glides (or semivowels) /j/ and /w/ don’t seem to involve much obstructionbut most linguists think of them as consonants (check page 46, Approximants)ㄦ causes an obstruction, and is thought of as a consonant by linguistsSome of the ㄅㄆㄇ symbols often represent two phones, one consonant and one vowelCan you say which?
7 How many vowels? How many consonants? dog?rabbit?phoneknotcombChinaIπpinelong餓他龍他們
8 How many words, morphemes, syllables, consonants and vowels in the following? Count semivowels as consonants.GreenhouseRed housesWomen我們Those sheep老鼠老太太玻璃John drinks coffee他不喝咖啡
9 Reading for next time Chapter 5; and Compare KK 音標 with the US system used in our book(tables on pages 45 &48)write the differences you find in pencil in your book, if you want to
11 Language presentations 10-15 minutesTalk aboutWhere? Who? How many?Interesting facts about the languageRelationship with other languagesSounds of the languageMorphology and syntax (= grammar)You can use wikipedia and ethnologue to help youBUT you must consult other websites tooYou will get a better grade if youConsult library books about the language, or about linguisticsTell us which books and websites you used
12 Articulatory phonetics What does that mean?What are the other two phases of signal transmission, please?Classification of sounds in articulatory phoneticsFirst, we’ll look at consonants
13 Describing (characterizing) consonants First, airstream:For all sounds in English and Mandarin, this is pulmonic egressiveSecond, place of articulationListed in Yule chapter 5How would you describe the difference between [f], [θ] and [s]?How about [p], [t] and [k]? (groups?)
14 Third, voicing Voiced and voiceless consonants [v] is voiced [f] and [v] are both bilabialSo what’s the difference?[v] is voicedThe vocal folds open and close rapidly(They vibrate)[f] is voicelessNo vibration
15 Voiced vs voiceless Of course [v] does not exist in Mandarin It does in Shanghai (因為 pronounced yinvei!)Say both, and put your fingers on your larynx[b] and [p] are voiced and voiceless respectively[b] doesn’t exist in Mandarin eitherIn fact, there are very few voiced consonants in Mandarin
16 Manner of articulation Now, consider the difference between[t] and [s] (these exist in Mandarin)[d] and [z] (these don’t)How about [p] and [m]or [d] and [n]?
17 Parameters for describing consonants So far (this is not complete yet) we haveAirstream (usually the same for all consonants)Place of articulationVoicingManner of articulationSo, [p] is …egressive pulmonicbilabialvoicelessplosive