3 The current model of particle physics – The Standard Model bosons fermions bosons fermions Fermions Bosons Still Undiscovered
4 Finding the Higgs Boson Higgs mass < 1 TeV for theory to work. The Higgs mass can be constrained by precision electroweak data and direct searches. Latest constraints put the favored higgs mass below 182 GeV to 95% confidence level. So either the Higgs will be seen at the LHC or something is very wrong with the theory.
5 What about Dark Matter? Evidence Compelling: –Galactic Rotation Curves –Gravitational Lensing
6 What about Baryogenesis? An asymmetry in the baryons and anti-baryons in the very early universe leads to the matter dominated universe we see today. The three Sakharov conditions: –Baryon number violation –C and CP violation –Departure from thermodynamic equilibrium
7 What about neutrino mass? Neutrinos shown to oscillate from one lepton flavour into another. (1998 SuperKamiokande) Possible if mass eigenstates are not the same as flavour eigenstates. Implies neutrinos have a mass. No natural mechanism for this in the Standard Model.
8 Why don’t the gauge couplings unify at the GUT scale If the three forces are manifestations of the same force, their strength should meet when extrapolated to the GUT scale. Almost meet at 10 16 GeV. Introduce new physics at the TeV energy scale such as sypersymmetry and they can meet.
9 Why is the Higgs mass finely tuned? Loop corrections to the mass diverge quadratically. Introduce a cut-off scale for new physics. Corrections are of the order of this scale. where:
10 Why is the Higgs mass fine tuned? Take the scale of new physics as the GUT scale O(10 16 GeV) Implies that m 0 must be of a similar order and cancel to around 15 decimal places in order to give m H a mass O(100GeV). An indication of new physics at the TeV energy scale?
11 Solution: Supersymmetry Higgs Fine Tuning: Introduce a new symmetry between fermions and bosons such that contributions from new particles cancel out the loop contributions to the higgs mass. Dark Matter: A new conservation law is introduced to prevent proton decay. One consequence is stable lightest supersymmetric particle. Gauge Couplings: Can unify at GUT scale. Baryogenisis: Some models of supersymmetry allow electroweak baryogenisis if stop lighter than top. bosons fermionsbosonsfermions
12 Supersymmetry Not so great: –Supersymmetry has not been observed. –So the new particles must have a mass much larger than their Standard Model partners. –The symmetry is broken. –The mechanism for this symmetry breaking differs from model to model.
13 Supersymmetry Over 100 new free parameters. Can reduce these to just a few for example m 0, m 1/2, μ, tan( β ). Parameter space is limited by: –WMAP constraint on relic density –Excluded by g-2 –Excluded by b →s γ –Excluded because stau is lightest supersymmetric particle RG evolution of unified mSUGRA mass parameters
16 Large Hadron Collider (LHC) –Proton-proton collider –Collisions at 900 GeV end of this year –Collisions at 14 TeV middle of next year
17 How can new physics be found and measured? New particles are heavy and generally unstable, decaying quickly into observable Standard Model particles. The types of particles, their energies and direction depend on the original particle. This can be used to separate a signal from Standard Model background.
18 What is the potential of the LHC to see new physics Signatures of supersymmetry will be: –A large number of high energy jets –A large amount of missing energy Could be seen very soon after data taking begins. If supersymmetry is not seen with the LHC we can rule out most of this parameter space. Parameter space A few days of data collection A month of data collection One year of data collection
19 How can new physics be measured. Decay products properties can be used to reconstruct the original particles mass and spin. Example: Dilepton resonances Resonance with mass =1.5TeV With Standard Model Background (Red)
20 Dilepton resonances continued Such a signal could come from a variety of scenarios of new physics including: –Extra gauge bosons From GUT theories From Kaluza-Klein excitations –Gravitons in Randall- Sundrum model Measure spin with angular distributions of decay products.
21 What about new physics with dark matter particles? Stable non-interacting particles can be found in: –Supersymmetry (R-Parity conservation). –Universal Extra Dimensions (KK- Parity conservation). Escape detection
22 Example: Supersymmetric Decay Chain Jet seen in detector Positron or positive muon seen in detector Electron or muon seen in detector Nothing seen by detector Makes mass and spin reconstruction more difficult!
23 Measuring Mass Masses are confined by the extremities or (end-points) of the invariant mass distribution Can similarly measure –m l+q max –m l-q max –m llq max 4 equations and 4 unknown masses Solve
24 This method is independent of the type of new physics seen. Universal Extra Dimensions may look identical Need to know the spins also to distinguish different models 1/2 0 0 1 1
25 Measuring Spin - Method by A. Barr hep-ph/0405052 Recall from the dilepton example: The number of events vs. cos( θ*) depends on the spins of the particles involved in the decay. But we don’t know the direction of weakly interacting particle. But, the invariant mass distribution depends on cos( θ* ) because it can be written as:
26 Measuring Spin m is a function of cos θ * therefore it is also depends on the spins. Looking at the supersymmetric cascade decay again we can use the invariant mass, m l near q, to measure the spin of Rescaled mass Rescaled number of events No spin correlation
27 Measuring Spin Experiments are never so simple: –There is no way of telling if a jet has come from a quark or anti q! –It is not clear which is the near and which is the far lepton. Still doable: –Asymmetry of squarks anti-squark due to valence quarks in original collision. This means slightly more quarks. –Far leptons have smaller spin correlation. The far leptons will smear the results of the near, but not destroy them. +
28 Measuring Spin Number of events Charge asymmetry Shape indicates spin 1/2 Possible to use this charge asymmetry for other combinations of spins and rule in (out) type of new physics (C. Athanasiou et al. hep-ph/0605286) Shape indicates spin 0
29 Conclusions There is theoretical and experimental motivation to expect new physics. Much of this will be accessible with the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. It may be possible to measure the mass and spin of new particles. –Even when one of the decay products is unobservable. The battle to be the first to find new physics begins soon…