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8 Chapter 5: Groups and Teamwork
Amanda Tumbach Gary McInenly Raynard Enriquez Adam Baker

9 Groups vs. Teams 4 types of teams
Groups and Teams Groups vs. Teams 4 types of teams

10 Groups and Teams used as a way to better utilize employee talents.
outperform individuals potential for greater outputs without increasing inputs more flexible & responsive

11 Groups vs. Teams Group: 2 or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have a stable relationship, common goal and perceive themselves as a group Team: groups that work close together to a common objective, and are accountable to one another not all groups are teams, but all teams are groups

12 Problem-Solving (or Process-Improvement) Teams
groups of 5-12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment. ideas and suggestions are shared it is found that the use of teamwork varies by organizational size

13 Quality Circles most problem-solving teams use quality circles
a work group of employees (about 8-10) who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions employees participating in quality circles are required to learn further skills and methods to analyze and solve quality problems

14 Self-Managed (or Self-Directed) Work Teams
a group of employees who take on responsibilities of their former managers These responsibilities include: planning & scheduling of work assigning tasks to members collectively controlling the pace of work making operating decisions taking action on problems teams select their own members and make evaluations on each other

15 Cross-Functional (or Project) Teams
a team made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas who come together to accomplish a task an effective means of allowing individuals from diverse areas within an organization or between organizations to exchange info, develop new ideas and solve problems, and to coordinate complex projects downfall occurs in developmental stages

16 Includes: Task forces: temporary cross-functional teams
Committees: groups composed of members from across departmental lines Skunkworks: cross-functional teams that develop spontaneously to create new products or work on complex problems work in isolation

17 Virtual Teams use of computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal collaborate online using communication links can do all things that other teams do, and can often be more efficient due to ease of sharing info downfall in absence of paraverbal cues, nonverbal cues, and social contact

18 From Individual to Team Member
Roles Norms Status

19 In order for a team to function, individuals have to achieve some balance between their own needs and the needs of the team. Individuals bring: Personality Previous Experience

20 Possible pressures individual group members put on each other through expectations.
Roles Norms Status

21 Roles A set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity Role Perception Role Expectation Role Conflict

22 Psychological Contract
An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.

23 Norms acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members means of influencing behaviour differ among groups, communities and societies but all entities have norms formalized norms are written up in organizational manuals that set out rules and procedures most norms in organizations are informal

24 Conformity adjusting your behaviour to align with the norms of a group
Reference Groups

25 Status a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others motivation acquired, ascribed significance?

26 Stages Of Group and Team Development
The Five-Stage Model The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model

27 Five-Stage Model 1. Forming
The first stage of development, Characterized form the saying “testing the waters” 2. Storming The second stage of development, know as the power struggle or intragroup conflict stage

28 3. Norming The third stage of development, Characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness 4. Performing The fourth stage of development, were the group of team is fully functional and accepted

29 5. Adjourning The final stage of development for temporary groups or teams, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance

30 The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Phase 1 The first meeting in which members of a team gather to set the direction of the group. These direction become “ written in stone ”, Known as the period of inertia Phase 2 Team moves out of the inertia stage and recognizes that work needs to be completed

31 Transition This stage is in between phase 1 and 2. The stage acts like a alarm clock, heightening members awareness to get thing done. This stage is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes. That revise the direction of the team for phase 2

32 Creating Effective Teams
Model of Team Effectiveness - Work Design - Composition - Process - Context

33 Model of Team Effectiveness
Work Design Autonomy Skill Variety Task Identity Task significance Composition Ability Personality Roles and Diversity Size Flexibility Preference for teamwork Team Effectiveness Process Common Purpose Specific goals Team efficacy Conflict Context Adequate Resources Leadership Performance Evaluation and Rewards

34 Work Design Work together and collectively take responsibility for a goal or task. This includes: Autonomy: independence Skill Variety: using different skills and talents Task Identity: ability to complete a whole and identifiable task Task Significance: participation that has a substantial impact

35 Composition Select members with their strengths in mind and supply task that fit. This includes: Ability Personality Roles and Diversity Size Flexibility Preference for teamwork

36 Ability technical expertise problem solving and decision making skills
interpersonal skills

37 Personality Must be careful of team selection based on personality.
This includes: Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Groups with these characteristics are most likely to be successful.

38 Roles There are two types of roles:
1. Task oriented roles: performed by group members to ensure that tasks are accomplished Ex. initiators, Information seekers, information providers, elaborators, summarizers, consensus makers 2. Maintenance roles: carried out to ensure that group members maintain good relations Ex. harmonizers, compromisers, gatekeepers, encouragers

39 Size The smaller the group the faster the productivity. (groups consisting of 7 individuals) The larger the group the slower the productivity, but better for gaining diverse input. (groups consisting of 12 or more individuals)

40 Flexibility Individuals who can complete more then one task or another individual’s task.

41 Context Three factors that are most significant:
1. Presence of adequate resources 2. Effective leadership 3. Performance evaluation/Reward system

42 Adequate Resources support from management and the organization
This includes: Technology Staffing Assistance Encouragement Information

43 Leadership This includes looking after such things as:
Scheduling Workload Skill Development Conflict resolve How to make/modify decisions higher expectation/positive mood = greater productivity, lower turnover, better performance

44 Performance Evaluation and Rewards
getting a member to be individually/jointly accountable Some evaluations of performance: Team results Effectiveness/Team functioning Personal effectiveness

45 Process Variables of the group include: Common purpose Specific Goals
Efficacy Accountability: Conflict and Social Loafing

46 Common Purpose Specific Goals
provides direction, momentum, and commitment for members broader then a goal Specific Goals facilitate clear communication help maintain employees focus on achieving results set milestones

47 Team Efficacy Success breads success
Cohesiveness helps build team efficiency Cohesiveness Low High High Productivity Moderate Productivity Low Productivity Moderate to Low Productivity Performance Norms What can be done to increase team efficiency? 1. helping the team to achieve small successes and skill training 2. provide training to improve workers technical and interpersonal skills

48 Social Loafing and Accountability
Conflict Levels Relationship conflict can effect a teams performance both positively and negatively. Task conflict can improve team effectiveness. Social Loafing and Accountability Social loafing is related to the size of the group. Social loafing: tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively then when working individually Successful teams make members individually and jointly accountable.

49 Teams and Workforce Diversity
Advantages & Disadvantages

50 Teams and Work Force Diversity
Advantages Disadvantages Multiple Perspectives Ambiguity Greater openness to new ideas Complexity Multiple interpretations Confusion Increase creativity Miscommunication Increase Flexibility Difficulty reaching agreements Increase problem-solving skills Difficulty agreeing on specific actions

51 Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer
How do you know if teams are for you ? Three tests can be applied 1. Can the work be done better by more then one person. 2. Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than aggregate of individual goals. 3. Are members of the group interdependent.

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