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8 Chapter 5: Groups and Teamwork Amanda TumbachGary McInenlyRaynard EnriquezAdam Baker
9 Groups vs. Teams 4 types of teams Groups and TeamsGroups vs. Teams4 types of teams
10 Groups and Teams used as a way to better utilize employee talents. outperform individualspotential for greater outputs without increasing inputsmore flexible & responsive
11 Groups vs. TeamsGroup: 2 or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have a stable relationship, common goal and perceive themselves as a groupTeam: groups that work close together to a common objective, and are accountable to one anothernot all groups are teams, but all teams are groups
12 Problem-Solving (or Process-Improvement) Teams groups of 5-12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment.ideas and suggestions are sharedit is found that the use of teamwork varies by organizational size
13 Quality Circles most problem-solving teams use quality circles a work group of employees (about 8-10) who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective actionsemployees participating in quality circles are required to learn further skills and methods to analyze and solve quality problems
14 Self-Managed (or Self-Directed) Work Teams a group of employees who take on responsibilities of their former managersThese responsibilities include:planning & scheduling of workassigning tasks to memberscollectively controlling the pace of workmaking operating decisionstaking action on problemsteams select their own members and make evaluations on each other
15 Cross-Functional (or Project) Teams a team made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas who come together to accomplish a taskan effective means of allowing individuals from diverse areas within an organization or between organizations to exchange info, develop new ideas and solve problems, and to coordinate complex projectsdownfall occurs in developmental stages
16 Includes: Task forces: temporary cross-functional teams Committees: groups composed of members from across departmental linesSkunkworks: cross-functional teams that develop spontaneously to create new products or work on complex problemswork in isolation
17 Virtual Teamsuse of computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goalcollaborate online using communication linkscan do all things that other teams do, and can often be more efficient due to ease of sharing infodownfall in absence of paraverbal cues, nonverbal cues, and social contact
18 From Individual to Team Member RolesNormsStatus
19 In order for a team to function, individuals have to achieve some balance between their own needs and the needs of the team.Individuals bring:PersonalityPrevious Experience
20 Possible pressures individual group members put on each other through expectations. RolesNormsStatus
21 RolesA set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.Role IdentityRole PerceptionRole ExpectationRole Conflict
22 Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.
23 Normsacceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s membersmeans of influencing behaviourdiffer among groups, communities and societiesbut all entities have normsformalized norms are written up in organizational manuals that set out rules and proceduresmost norms in organizations are informal
24 Conformity adjusting your behaviour to align with the norms of a group Reference Groups
25 Statusa socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by othersmotivationacquired, ascribedsignificance?
26 Stages Of Group and Team Development The Five-Stage ModelThe Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
27 Five-Stage Model 1. Forming The first stage of development, Characterized form the saying “testing the waters”2. StormingThe second stage of development, know as the power struggle or intragroup conflict stage
28 3. NormingThe third stage of development, Characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness4. PerformingThe fourth stage of development, were the group of team is fully functional and accepted
29 5. AdjourningThe final stage of development for temporary groups or teams, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
30 The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Phase 1The first meeting in which members of a team gather to set the direction of the group. These direction become “ written in stone ”, Known as the period of inertiaPhase 2Team moves out of the inertia stage and recognizes that work needs to be completed
31 TransitionThis stage is in between phase 1 and 2. The stage acts like a alarm clock, heightening members awareness to get thing done. This stage is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes. That revise the direction of the team for phase 2
32 Creating Effective Teams Model of Team Effectiveness- Work Design - Composition- Process - Context
33 Model of Team Effectiveness Work DesignAutonomySkill VarietyTask IdentityTask significanceCompositionAbilityPersonalityRoles and DiversitySizeFlexibilityPreference for teamworkTeam EffectivenessProcessCommon PurposeSpecific goalsTeam efficacyConflictContextAdequate ResourcesLeadershipPerformanceEvaluation and Rewards
34 Work DesignWork together and collectively take responsibility for a goal or task.This includes:Autonomy: independenceSkill Variety: using different skills and talentsTask Identity: ability to complete a whole and identifiable taskTask Significance: participation that has a substantial impact
35 CompositionSelect members with their strengths in mind and supply task that fit.This includes:AbilityPersonalityRoles and DiversitySizeFlexibilityPreference for teamwork
36 Ability technical expertise problem solving and decision making skills interpersonal skills
37 Personality Must be careful of team selection based on personality. This includes:ExtroversionAgreeablenessConscientiousnessEmotional StabilityGroups with these characteristics are most likely to be successful.
38 Roles There are two types of roles: 1. Task oriented roles: performed by group members to ensure that tasks are accomplishedEx. initiators, Information seekers, information providers, elaborators, summarizers, consensus makers2. Maintenance roles: carried out to ensure that group members maintain good relationsEx. harmonizers, compromisers, gatekeepers, encouragers
39 SizeThe smaller the group the faster the productivity. (groups consisting of 7 individuals)The larger the group the slower the productivity, but better for gaining diverse input.(groups consisting of 12 or more individuals)
40 FlexibilityIndividuals who can complete more then one task or another individual’s task.
41 Context Three factors that are most significant: 1. Presence of adequate resources2. Effective leadership3. Performance evaluation/Reward system
42 Adequate Resources support from management and the organization This includes:TechnologyStaffingAssistanceEncouragementInformation
43 Leadership This includes looking after such things as: SchedulingWorkloadSkill DevelopmentConflict resolveHow to make/modify decisionshigher expectation/positive mood = greater productivity, lower turnover, better performance
44 Performance Evaluation and Rewards getting a member to be individually/jointly accountableSome evaluations of performance:Team resultsEffectiveness/Team functioningPersonal effectiveness
45 Process Variables of the group include: Common purpose Specific Goals EfficacyAccountability: Conflict and Social Loafing
46 Common Purpose Specific Goals provides direction, momentum, and commitment for membersbroader then a goalSpecific Goalsfacilitate clear communicationhelp maintain employees focus on achieving resultsset milestones
47 Team Efficacy Success breads success Cohesiveness helps build team efficiencyCohesivenessLow HighHigh ProductivityModerate ProductivityLow ProductivityModerate to Low ProductivityPerformance NormsWhat can be done to increase team efficiency?1. helping the team to achieve small successes and skill training2. provide training to improve workers technical andinterpersonal skills
48 Social Loafing and Accountability Conflict LevelsRelationship conflict can effect a teams performance both positively and negatively.Task conflict can improve team effectiveness.Social Loafing and AccountabilitySocial loafing is related to the size of the group.Social loafing: tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively then when working individuallySuccessful teams make members individually and jointly accountable.
49 Teams and Workforce Diversity Advantages & Disadvantages
50 Teams and Work Force Diversity Advantages DisadvantagesMultiple Perspectives AmbiguityGreater openness to new ideas ComplexityMultiple interpretations ConfusionIncrease creativity MiscommunicationIncrease Flexibility Difficulty reaching agreementsIncrease problem-solving skills Difficulty agreeing onspecific actions
51 Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer How do you know if teams are for you ?Three tests can be applied1. Can the work be done better by more then one person.2. Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than aggregate of individual goals.3. Are members of the group interdependent.