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Measuring Results and Behaviors: Overview

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring Results and Behaviors: Overview"— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring Results and Behaviors: Overview
Measuring Behaviors

2 Measuring Results: Overview
Accountabilities Objectives Performance Standards

3 Key questions Where should each individual focus efforts?
What are the expected objectives? How do we know how well the results were achieved?

4 Accountabilities Broad areas of a job for which employee is responsible for producing results

5 Objectives Statements of important and measurable outcomes

6 Performance Standards
Yardstick used to evaluate how well employees have achieved objectives

7 Determining Accountabilities
Collect information about job (Job Description) Determine importance of task or cluster of tasks % of employee’s time spent performing task Impact on unit’s mission if performed inadequately Consequences of error

8 Determining Objectives
Purpose: to identify Outcomes Limited number Highly important When achieved dramatic impact on overall organization success

9 10 Characteristics of Good Objectives
Specific and Clear Challenging Agreed Upon Significant Prioritized

10 10 Characteristics of Good Objectives (continued)
Bound by Time Achievable Fully Communicated Flexible Limited in Number

11 Determining Performance Standards
Standards refer to aspects of performance objectives, such as: Quality How well the objective is achieved Quantity How much, how many, how often, at what cost Time Due dates, schedule, cycle times, how quickly

12 Standards must include:
A verb The desired result A due date Some type of indicator Quality and/or Quantity

13 Good Performance Standards: 6 Characteristics
Related to Position Concrete, Specific, Measurable Practical to Measure Meaningful Realistic and Achievable Reviewed Regularly

14 Measuring Behaviors: Overview
Identify competencies Identify indicators Choose measurement system

15 Identify Competencies
Measurable clusters of KSAs Knowledges Skills Abilities That are critical in determining how results will be achieved

16 Types of Competencies Differentiating Threshold
Distinguish between superior and average performance Threshold Needed to perform to minimum standard

17 Identify Indicators Observable behaviors
Used to measure extent to which competencies are present – or not

18 Necessary Components for Describing Competencies
Definition Description of specific behaviors When competency demonstrated When competency not demonstrated Suggestions for developing the competency

19 Comparative Systems Simple rank order Alternation rank order
Paired comparisons Forced distribution

20 Choose Measurement System
Comparative system Compares employees with each other Absolute system Compares employees with pre-specified performance standard

21 Advantages of Comparative Systems
Easy to explain Straightforward Better control for biases and errors found in absolute systems Leniency Severity Central tendency

22 Disadvantages of Comparative Systems
Rankings may not be specific enough for Useful feedback Protection from legal challenge No information on relative distance between employees Specific issues with forced distribution method

23 Absolute Systems Essays Behavior checklists Critical incidents
Graphic rating scales

24 Essays Advantage: Disadvantages:
Potential to provide detailed feedback Disadvantages: Unstructured and may lack detail Depends on supervisor writing skill Lack of quantitative information; difficult to use in personnel decisions

25 Behavior checklists Advantage: Disadvantage:
Easy to use and understand Disadvantage: Scale points used are often arbitrary Difficult to get detailed and useful feedback

26 Critical incidents Kinds of measurement
Report of specific employee behavior Allows focus on specific behavior Very time-consuming Examples of behavior illustrative of core competencies Easier to use Describes behavior desired

27 Graphic rating scales Clear meaning for each response category
Consistent interpretation by outside readers Supervisor and employee should have same understanding of rating

28 Graphic rating scales: BARS improvement
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) Use critical incidents as anchors Involves multiple groups of employees in development Identify important job elements Describe critical incidents at various levels of performance Check for inter-rater reliability

29 Measuring Performance
Several types of methods Differ in terms of: Practicality (time and effort) Usefulness (quantifiable)

30 Quick Review Measuring Results Measuring Behaviors
Identify accountabilities Set objectives Determine standards of performance Measuring Behaviors Identify competencies Identify indicators Choose measurement system

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