2 Bologna Declaration On June 19, 1999, in Bologna Pledge by (originally) 29 CountriesAustria, Belgium, Bulgaria, (not Cyprus), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Swiss Confederation, United KingdomReform higher education systems to create convergence on European levelGrowth and diversification of higher educationEmployability of graduatesShortage of skills in key areasExpansion of private & transnational education
3 Context Europe: a diverse set of peoples and cultures EU: a way to keep Europe safe, democratic, peaceful, and prosperousPaths to a better Europe:Educated citizensIntegrationCompetitivenessBuild upon and strengthen following dimensions:IntellectualCulturalSocialScientificTechnological
4 Timeline Towards a European Higher Education Area Sept Bologna – Magna Charta UniversitatumMagna Carta / Great Charter / Great Paper / ConstitutionBologna: Oldest University in Europe (MC signed at its 900th anniversary)Signed by 388 University RectorsMay 1998 Sorbonne, Paris Declaration4 members (Germany, France, Italy, UK)June 1999 Bologna Declaration29 membersMay 2001 Prague Communiqué32 members (e.g. Russia, balkan countries)Sept Berlin Communiqué40 membersMay 2005 Bergen Communiqué45 members (e.g. Ukraine)May 2007 London
5 Convergence of European Higher Education Convergence is not:StandardizationUniformizationConvergence will preserve:AutonomyDiversityConvergence entails:Coordinated reformsCompatible systemsCommon actionSome degree of politics to calm down opponents?
6 Concrete Objectives (by 2010) Adoption: Readable and comparable degrees“Diploma Supplement”Adoption: Two “cycles”Undergraduate degree (3 year minimum)Relevant to labor marketGraduate (master or doctorate) degreeAfter completion of undergraduate degreeEstablishment: ECTSTo promote student mobilityPromotion: MobilityStudentsTeachers, researchers, administratorsPromotion: Co-operation in “quality assurance” (ranking & accreditation)Promotion: European integrationCo-operation in curricular developmentIntegrated programs of study
9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) Credit SystemAttach credits to components of educational programCredits based on: student workload, learning outcomes, contact hoursECTSIntroduced 1989 (EU Erasmus/Socrates)Initially for credit transfer (thus ECTS)Recently also for credit accumulation
10 ECTS Features 60 ECTS Credits only for successful completion Full-time student workload per academic year1500…1800 working hours 1 credit = 25…30 working hoursCredits only for successful completionIncluding assessment of learning outcomesCredits for all educational components, incl.ModulesCoursesPlacements (=internships?)Dissertation workWorkload includesAttending lectures and seminarsIndependent/private studyPreparation of projects and examsGradesLocal/nationalECTS – graded on a curve (statistical)
11 ECTS Grading Scale A best 10% B next 25% C next 30% D next 25% 100%AA best 10%B next 25%C next 30%D next 25%E next 10%F fail – considerable further work requiredFX fail – some more work required90%B65%C35%D10%E0%
12 Discussion Questions Will/should Bologna become a world-wide system? Is convergence good?Is a 3-year Bachelor good?Why do most institutions offer 3-year Bachelors, even though Bologna doesn’t prescribe this?Are working hours realistic?Is giving credits based on workload good (or should we give credits based on grade)?Is grading on a curve (ECTS grades) good?