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Teknik Routing Pertemuan 20 Matakuliah: H0484/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Teknik Routing Pertemuan 20 Matakuliah: H0484/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teknik Routing Pertemuan 20 Matakuliah: H0484/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2007

2 Bina Nusantara Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menjelaskan teknik routing

3 Bina Nusantara Outline Materi Routing table Routing Criteria Routing Strategies

4 Bina Nusantara Routing Routing is the process of deciding what path to take from sender to receiver (packet forwarding) Usually there is more than one route possible; devices that perform routing must keep tables to make decisions about which path to send packets on to reach a given destination (routing table) Routing decisions on the Internet are usually handled by special purpose devices called Routers, that maintain their own routing tables End systems and routers maintain routing tables Routing table indicates next router to which datagram should be sent

5 Bina Nusantara Data delivery from one computer to another is accomplished through store-and-forward technology Packet switch stores incoming packet and forwards the packet to another switch or computer Packet switch has internal memory, can hold packet if outgoing connection is busy (queued) Routing

6 Bina Nusantara Routing Techniques Criteria Performance Criteria Number of hops Cost Delay Throughput Decision Time Packet (datagram) Session (virtual circuit) Decision Place Each node (distributed) Central node (centralized) Originating node (source) Network Information Source None Local Adjacent node Nodes along route All nodes Network Information Update Timing Continuous Periodic Major load change Topology change

7 Bina Nusantara Routing Strategies Fixed Flooding Random Adaptive

8 Bina Nusantara – Static routing Fixed routing tables which are developed by network managers, typically used on simpler networks – Dynamic routing: Routing decisions are made dynamically, based on routing condition information exchanged between routing devices. Types of Routing

9 Bina Nusantara Fixed Routing Single permanent route for each source to destination pair Determine routes using a least cost algorithm Route fixed, at least until a change in network topology

10 Bina Nusantara Flooding No network info required Packet sent by node to every neighbor Incoming packets retransmitted on every link except incoming link Eventually a number of copies will arrive at destination Each packet is uniquely numbered so duplicates can be discarded Nodes can remember packets already forwarded to keep network load in bounds Can include a hop count in packets

11 Bina Nusantara Flooding Example

12 Bina Nusantara Properties of Flooding All possible routes are tried – Very robust At least one packet will have taken minimum hop count route – Can be used to set up virtual circuit All nodes are visited – Useful to distribute information (e.g. routing)

13 Bina Nusantara Random Routing Node selects one outgoing path for retransmission of incoming packet Selection can be random or round robin Can select outgoing path based on probability calculation No network info needed Route is typically not least cost nor minimum hop

14 Bina Nusantara Adaptive Routing Used by almost all packet switching networks Routing decisions change as conditions on the network change – Failure – Congestion Requires info about network Decisions more complex Tradeoff between quality of network info and overhead Reacting too quickly can cause oscillation Too slowly to be relevant

15 Bina Nusantara Adaptive Routing - Advantages Improved performance Aid congestion control Complex system – May not realize theoretical benefits

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