What is Leadership? The influence of one group member over other group members to help achieve group or organizational goals Traits –physical appearance –cognitive abilities
Some More Leader Traits personality –dominance –high energy level – self-confidence –trustworthiness –motivation to lead –flexibility
Trait Approach to Leadership The approach: Leaders possess special traits that make then different from others; these traits account for leadership ability. The research: That leaders were no different from followers, until recently. Now, motivation, flexibility, and cognitive ability are identified. The limitations: Different situation may call for different types of leaders
Leader Behaviors People orientation -- consideration, the leader is concerned about the well being of employees and being fair. Task orientation -- initiation of structure, the focus of this leader is on goal attainment.
Consequences of Leader Behavior Consequences of consideration: This style of works well when the task is intrinsically satisfying, or when the task is extremely structured and clear Consequences of initiation of structure: This style works best with situations where there is pressure due to deadlines, ambiguous tasks, or external threat.
The Contingency Approach The most effective leadership style depends or is contingent on the specific situation. Several approaches –Fiedler’s Contingency Model –House’s Path-Goal Theory –Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Leader Style Group Relations Task Structure Power GoodPoor StructUnstruct StructUnstruct SWSWS WSW Production Person Prod
Situational Leadership Theory TellingSelling Delegating Participating Task Behavior Relationship Behavior High Low High
Emergent Leadership Leaders which arise from the group and have their base of power from followers rather than a higher authority. Example; elected leaders Idiosyncrasy credits -- The freedom to violate group norms given to members who have contributed much to the group
Participative Leadership Involving subordinates in making work- related decisions Advantages: Motivation, Quality, Acceptance Disadvantages:.Time and effort, Loss of power, Lack of knowledge or interest
Transformational Leadership Leadership, which provides followers with a vision that instills commitment Characteristics of transformational leadership –Individualized consideration –Intellectual stimulation –Charisma
The Charismatic Leader Traits include self-confidence, dominance, and a strong conviction in one’s beliefs They simultaneously hold high expectations and confidence in the abilities of their followers
Stages of Charismatic Leadership Leader carefully assesses the need for change Leader formulates a vision The leader gets the subordinates to carry out the mission by setting an example of self- sacrifice or expertise that inspires confidence and trust
Gender and Leadership Style Gender differences in leadership behavior -- Different expectations are held for male and female leaders Gender difference in leadership style -- Women consistently are more participative in style or democratic than are men.
Reactions to Women as Leaders Men can get away with more assertiveness, and being direct than can women When women behaved in a directive way, they got more frowns and scowls, and negative headshakes than positive expressions. Men got more positives than negatives
Does Leadership Matter Substitute or NeutralizerPersonProductionOriented Subordinate Characteristics 1. Experience, ability, trainingX (S) 2. Professional OrientationX (S)X (S) 3. Indifference to rewardsX (N)X (N) Task Characteristics 1. Routine & clearX (S) 2. Provides own feedbackX (S) 3. Intrinsically satisfyingX (S)