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Chapter 8 Lecture Outline

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1 Chapter 8 Lecture Outline
Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 1

2 The Skeletal System overview of the skeleton the skull
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal bone Parietal bone overview of the skeleton the skull the vertebral column and thoracic cage the pectoral girdle and upper limb the pelvic girdle and lower limb Skull Maxilla Mandible Mandible Pectoral girdle Clavicle Scapula Sternum Thoracic cage Ribs Humerus Costal cartilages Vertebral column Pelvis Hip bone Sacrum Ulna Coccyx Radius Carpus Metacarpal bones Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Metatarsal bones Tarsus Phalanges (a) Anterior view Figure 8.1a

3 Overview of the Skeleton
two regions of the skeleton axial skeleton – forms the central supporting axis of the body skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) appendicular skeleton – includes the bones of the upper limb and pectoral girdle, and the bones of the lower limb and pelvic girdle number of bones 206 in typical adult skeleton varies with development of sesamoid bones (patella) bones that form within some tendons in response to stress varies with presence of sutural (wormian) bones in skull extra bones that develop in skull suture lines 270 bones at birth, decreases with fusion surface markings defined in Table 8.2 ridges, spines, bumps, depressions, canals, pores, slits, cavities, and articular surfaces

4 Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal bone Parietal bone Occipital bone axial skeleton is colored tan skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, sacrum and hyoid appendicular skeleton is colored green pectoral girdle upper extremity pelvic girdle lower extremity Skull Maxilla Mandible Mandible Clavicle Clavicle Pectoral girdle Scapula Scapula Sternum Thoracic cage Ribs Humerus Costal cartilages Vertebral column Pelvis Hip bone Sacrum Ulna Coccyx Radius Carpus Metacarpal bones Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Metatarsal bones Tarsus Figure 8.1 Phalanges (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view

5 Anatomical Features of Bones
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lines Crest Sinuses Fovea Head Foramen Meatus Crest Head Trochanters Tubercle Process Condyle Alveolus Spine Foramen Tuberosity (a) Skull (lateral view) Line Process Spine Fossae Epicondyles Fossae Condyles Figure 8.2 (c) Femur (posterior view) (d) Humerus (anterior view) (b) Scapula (posterior view)

6 The Skull skull – the most complex part of the skeleton
22 bones joined together by sutures (immovable joints) 8 cranial bones surround cranial cavity which encloses the brain other cavities – orbits, nasal cavity, oral (buccal) cavity, middle-, and inner ear cavities, and paranasal sinuses paranasal sinuses – frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary lined by mucous membrane and air-filled lighten the anterior portion of the skull act as chambers that add resonance to the voice foramina – holes that allow passage for nerves and blood vessels 14 facial bones support teeth, facial and jaw muscles

7 Major Skull Cavities Figure 8.7 Cranial cavity Ethmoid air cells
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cranial cavity Ethmoid air cells Frontal bone Ethmoid bone Orbit Superior Zygomatic bone Nasal conchae Middle Inferior Maxilla Maxillary sinus Vomer Nasal cavity Oral cavity Mandible Figure 8.7

8 Cranial Fossa Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 8.9 Frontal lobe Anterior cranial fossa Temporal lobe Middle cranial fossa Cerebellum Posterior cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa Middle cranial fossa Anterior cranial fossa (a) Superior view (b) Lateral view cranium (braincase) – protects the brain and associated sense organs swelling of the brain inside the rigid cranium may force tissue through foramen magnum resulting in death consists of two parts: the calvaria (skullcap) and the cranial base base is divided into three basins that comprise the cranial floor

9 Frontal Bone forms forehead and part of the roof of the cranium
coronal suture – posterior boundary of frontal bone supraorbital foramen provides passage for nerve, artery, and vein contains frontal sinus Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Glabella Parietal bone Coronal suture Supraorbital margin Squamous suture Temporal bone Sphenoid bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Middle nasal concha Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Vomer Mandible Mental protuberance Mental foramen Figure 8.3

10 Parietal Bone form most of cranial roof and part of its lateral walls
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture form most of cranial roof and part of its lateral walls bordered by 4 sutures sagittal – between parietal bones coronal – at anterior margin lambdoid – at posterior margin squamous – at lateral border Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal lines Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Occipital bone Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Zygomaticofacial foramen Temporal bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic process External acoustic meatus Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mastoid process Temporal process Styloid process Mandible Mandibular condyle Mental foramen Figure 8.4a (a) Right lateral view Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior Frontal bone Coronal suture Parietal bone Sagittal suture Sutural bone Parietal foramen Lambdoid suture Figure 8.6 Occipital bone Posterior

11 Temporal Bone lateral wall and part of floor of cranial cavity
squamous part zygomatic process mandibular fossa tympanic part external auditory meatus styloid process mastoid part mastoid process mastoiditis from ear infection stylomastoid foramen mastoid foramen Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal lines Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Occipital bone Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Zygomaticofacial foramen Temporal bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic process External acoustic meatus Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mastoid process Temporal process Styloid process Mandible Mandibular condyle Mental foramen (a) Right lateral view Figure 8.4a

12 Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone
petrous part part of cranial floor houses middle and inner ear cavities receptors for hearing and sense of balance internal auditory meatus - opening for CN VII (vestibulocochlear nerve) carotid canal jugular foramen Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Diploe (spongy bone) Frontal bone Crista galli Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Cribriform foramina Sphenoid bone Optic foramen Foramen rotundum Sella turcica Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Temporal bone Internal acoustic meatus Petrous part of temporal bone Jugular foramen Parietal bone Groove for venous sinus Foramen magnum Occipital bone Hypoglossal canal Figure 8.5b (b) Superior view of cranial floor

13 Occipital Bone Figure 8.5a rear and base of skull
foramen magnum holds spinal cord skull rests on atlas at occipital condyles hypoglossal canal transmits hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) supplying tongue muscles Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Incisive foramen Palatine process of maxilla Zygomatic bone Intermaxillary suture Zygomatic arch Palatine bone Greater palatine foramen Posterior nasal aperture Medial pterygoid plate Vomer Lateral pterygoid plate Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Mandibular fossa Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Styloid process Basilar part of occipital bone External acoustic meatus Occipital condyle Carotid canal Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Mastoid notch Jugular foramen Temporal bone Foramen magnum Condylar canal Mastoid foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Occipital bone Figure 8.5a (a) Inferior view

14 Sphenoid Bone body greater wing lesser wing optic foramen Figure 8.11b
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lesser wing Dorsum sellae body greater wing lesser wing optic foramen Greater wing Superior orbital fissure Body Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Lateral pterygoid plate Medial pterygoid plate Pterygoid processes (b) Posterior view Figure 8.11b Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Diploe (spongy bone) Frontal bone Crista galli Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Cribriform foramina Sphenoid bone Optic foramen Foramen rotundum Sella turcica Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Temporal bone Internal acoustic meatus Petrous part of temporal bone Jugular foramen Parietal bone Groove for venous sinus Foramen magnum Occipital bone Hypoglossal canal Figure 8.5b (b) Superior view of cranial floor

15 Sphenoid Bone sphenoid sinus Figure 8.4b Figure 8.5a Coronal suture
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Incisive foramen Palatine process of maxilla Sphenoid sinus Squamous suture Frontal sinus Zygomatic bone Intermaxillary suture Crista galli Occipital bone Zygomatic arch Palatine bone Temporal bone Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Greater palatine foramen Posterior nasal aperture Sella turcica Medial pterygoid plate Lambdoid suture Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Internal acoustic meatus Vomer Lateral pterygoid plate Jugular foramen Nasal bone Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Hypoglossal canal Vomer Mandibular fossa Foramen spinosum Styloid process Palatine process of maxilla Foramen lacerum Styloid process Basilar part of occipital bone Mandibular foramen Maxilla External acoustic meatus Occipital condyle Carotid canal Palatine bone Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Mandible Mastoid notch Jugular foramen Mental spines Temporal bone Foramen magnum Condylar canal Mastoid foramen (b) Median section Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Inferior nuchal line Figure 8.4b Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Occipital bone Figure 8.5a (a) Inferior view sphenoid sinus

16 Ethmoid Bone Figure 8.14 Figure 8.12 between the eyes
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. between the eyes contributes to medial wall of orbit lateral walls and roof of nasal cavity, and nasal septum cribriform plate – forms roof of nasal cavity ethmoid cells in the make up ethmoid sinuses Supraorbital foramen Orbital plate of frontal bone Roof of orbit Lesser wing of sphenoid bone Zygomatic process of frontal bone Optic foramen Greater wing of sphenoid bone Lateral wall of orbit Orbital plate of ethmoid bone Orbital surface of zygomatic bone Medial wall Lacrimal bone Superior orbital fissure Frontal process of maxilla Inferior orbital fissure Orbital process of palatine bone Infraorbital foramen Floor of orbit Orbital surface of maxilla Figure 8.14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cribriform plate Cribriform foramina Crista galli Orbital plate Superior nasal concha Ethmoidal cells Middle nasal concha Perpendicular plate Figure 8.12

17 Ethmoid Bone superior and middle concha
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Frontal bone Crista galli Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid sinus Cribriform plate Frontal sinus Squamous suture Cribriform foramina Frontal sinus Nasal bone Sella turcica Crista galli Occipital bone Nasal conchae: Temporal bone Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Superior Sella turcica Middle Lambdoid suture Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus Inferior Internal acoustic meatus Jugular foramen Nasal bone Occipital bone Nasal cartilages Hypoglossal canal Vomer Styloid process Palatine process of maxilla Sphenoid bone Mandibular foramen Anterior nasal spine Maxilla Palatine bone Incisive foramen Palatine bone Lacrimal bone Mandible Lip Mental spines Maxilla Incisor Figure 8.4b Figure 8.13 (b) Median section superior and middle concha perpendicular plate of nasal septum

18 Facial Bones facial bones (14)– those that have no direct contact with the brain or meninges support the teeth give shape and individuality to the face form part of the orbital and nasal cavities provide attachments for muscles of facial expression and mastication 2 maxillae 2 nasal bones 2 palatine bones 2 inferior nasal conchae 2 zygomatic bones 1 vomer 2 lacrimal bones 1 mandible

19 Maxillary Bones Figure 8.3 Figure 8.5a largest facial bones
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal bone largest facial bones forms upper jaw and meet each other at a median intermaxillary suture forms inferomedial wall of orbit infraorbital foramen inferior orbital fissure forms most of the hard palate palatine process palate – forms the roof of the mouth and floor of nasal cavity incisive foramen palate allows us to chew while breathing cleft palate and cleft lip Supraorbital foramen Glabella Coronal suture Parietal bone Supraorbital margin Squamous suture Temporal bone Sphenoid bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Middle nasal concha Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Vomer Figure 8.3 Mandible Mental protuberance Mental foramen Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Incisive foramen Palatine process of maxilla Zygomatic bone Intermaxillary suture Zygomatic arch Palatine bone Greater palatine foramen Posterior nasal aperture Medial pterygoid plate Vomer Lateral pterygoid plate Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Mandibular fossa Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Styloid process Basilar part of occipital bone External acoustic meatus Occipital condyle Carotid canal Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Mastoid notch Jugular foramen Temporal bone Foramen magnum Condylar canal Mastoid foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Figure 8.5a Occipital bone (a) Inferior view

20 Location of Maxillary Sinus
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoid sinus Maxillary sinus Figure 8.8 Figure 8.8 maxillary sinus fills maxillae bone larger in volume than frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses

21 Palatine Bones L-shaped bone
form the posterior portion of the hard palate part of lateral nasal cavity wall part of the orbital floor greater palatine foramina Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Crista galli Frontal bone Cribriform plate Frontal sinus Cribriform foramina Nasal bone Sella turcica Nasal conchae: Superior Middle Sphenoid sinus Inferior Occipital bone Nasal cartilages Sphenoid bone Anterior nasal spine Palatine bone Incisive foramen Lacrimal bone Lip Maxilla Figure 8.13 Incisor Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Supraorbital foramen Orbital plate of frontal bone Roof of orbit Lesser wing of sphenoid bone Zygomatic process of frontal bone Optic foramen Greater wing of sphenoid bone Lateral wall of orbit Orbital plate of ethmoid bone Orbital surface of zygomatic bone Medial wall Lacrimal bone Superior orbital fissure Frontal process of maxilla Inferior orbital fissure Orbital process of palatine bone Infraorbital foramen Floor of orbit Orbital surface of maxilla Figure 8.14 8-21

22 Zygomatic Bones forms angles of the cheekbones and part of lateral orbital wall zygomaticofacial foramen zygomatic arch is formed from temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal lines Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Occipital bone Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Zygomaticofacial foramen Temporal bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic process External acoustic meatus Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mastoid process Temporal process Styloid process Mandible Mandibular condyle Mental foramen (a) Right lateral view Figure 8.4a

23 Lacrimal Bones form part of medial wall of each orbit
smallest bone of skull lacrimal fossa houses lacrimal sac in life tears collect in lacrimal sac and drain into nasal cavity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Temporal lines Lambdoid suture Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Occipital bone Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Zygomaticofacial foramen Temporal bone Infraorbital foramen Zygomatic process External acoustic meatus Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mastoid process Temporal process Styloid process Mandible Mandibular condyle Mental foramen (a) Right lateral view Figure 8.4a

24 Nasal Bones forms bridge of nose
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. forms bridge of nose supports cartilages that shape lower portion of the nose often fractured by blow to the nose Frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Glabella Parietal bone Coronal suture Supraorbital margin Squamous suture Temporal bone Sphenoid bone Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone Nasal bone Middle nasal concha Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Vomer Mandible Mental protuberance Mental foramen Figure 8.3

25 Vomer inferior half of the nasal septum
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. inferior half of the nasal septum superior half formed by perpendicular plate of ethmoid supports cartilage that forms the anterior part of the nasal septum Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid sinus Squamous suture Frontal sinus Crista galli Occipital bone Temporal bone Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sella turcica Lambdoid suture Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Internal acoustic meatus Jugular foramen Nasal bone Hypoglossal canal Vomer Styloid process Palatine process of maxilla Mandibular foramen Maxilla Palatine bone Mandible Mental spines (b) Median section Figure 8.4b

26 Mandible Figure 8.5a Figure 8.15 strongest bone of the skull
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. strongest bone of the skull only bone of skull that moves noticeably supports lower teeth provides attachments for muscles of facial expression and mastication mental symphysis – median cartilaginous joint in fetus develops as two separate bones in fetus ossifies in early childhood mental protuberance – point of chin two major parts on each side body – supports teeth ramus – articulates with cranium mental foramen Figure 8.5a Incisive foramen Palatine process of maxilla Zygomatic bone Intermaxillary suture Zygomatic arch Palatine bone Greater palatine foramen Posterior nasal aperture Medial pterygoid plate Vomer Lateral pterygoid plate Sphenoid bone Foramen ovale Mandibular fossa Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Styloid process Basilar part of occipital bone External acoustic meatus Occipital condyle Carotid canal Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Mastoid notch Jugular foramen Temporal bone Foramen magnum Condylar canal Mastoid foramen Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Occipital bone (a) Inferior view Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Condylar process Mandibular condyles Coronoid process Mandibular notch Mandibular foramen Alveolar process Ramus Mental foramen Mental protuberance Figure 8.15 Angle Body

27 Ramus, Angle and Body of Mandible
condylar process bears the mandibular condyle – oval knob that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone forming the hinge temporomandibular joint (TMJ) coronoid process – point of insertion of temporalis muscle mandibular notch mandibular foramen Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Mandibular condyles Condylar process Coronoid process Mandibular notch Mandibular foramen Alveolar process Ramus Mental foramen Mental protuberance Angle Body Figure 8.15

28 Bones Associated With Skull
auditory ossicles three in each middle-ear cavity malleus, incus, and stapes hyoid bone slender u-shaped bone between the chin and larynx does not articulate with any other bone suspended from styloid process of skull by muscle and ligament body and greater and lesser horns (cornua) fractured hyoid bone is evidence of strangulation Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Styloid process Stylohyoid muscle Hyoid Lesser horn Larynx Greater horn Body Figure 8.16

29 Skull in Infancy and Childhood
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. fontanels - spaces between unfused bones filled with fibrous membrane allow shifting of bones during birth and growth of brain anterior, posterior, sphenoid (anterolateral), and mastoid (posterolateral fontanels two frontal bones fuse by age 6 (metopic suture) skull reaches adult size by 8 or 9 years of age Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid fontanel Lambdoid suture Nasal bone Squamous suture Maxilla Occipital bone Zygomatic bone Mastoid fontanel Mandible Sphenoid bone Temporal bone (a) Lateral view Frontal bone Anterior fontanel Sagittal suture Parietal bone Posterior fontanel Figure 8.17 (b) Superior view

30 The Vertebral Column (Spine)
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. functions supports the skull and trunk allows for their movement protects the spinal cord absorbs stress of walking, running, and lifting provides attachments for limbs thoracic cage, and postural muscles 33 vertebrae with intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage between most of them adult vertebral column averages 71 cm. (28 in.) long intervertebral discs account for about one-quarter of its length person is 1% shorter when they go to bed compression squeezes water out during the day and absorbs water when compression removed during sleep Anterior view Posterior view Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) Cervical vertebrae C7 T1 Thoracic vertebrae T12 L1 Lumbar vertebrae L5 S1 Sacrum S5 Coccyx Coccyx Figure 8.18

31 The Vertebral Column (Spine)
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. five vertebral groups 7 cervical in the neck 12 thoracic in the chest 5 lumbar in lower back 5 fused sacral at base of spine 4 fused coccygeal variations in number of lumbar and sacral vertebrae occur in 1 in 20 people Anterior view Posterior view Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) Cervical vertebrae C7 T1 Thoracic vertebrae T12 L1 Lumbar vertebrae L5 S1 Sacrum S5 Coccyx Coccyx Figure 8.18

32 Adult Spinal Curvatures
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. s-shaped vertebral column with four normal curvatures cervical thoracic lumbar pelvic primary curvatures – present at birth thoracic and pelvic secondary curvatures – develop later cervical and lumbar lifting head as it begins to crawl develops cervical curvature walking upright develops lumbar curvature C1 Cervical curvature C7 T1 Thoracic curvature T12 L1 Lumbar curvature L5 S1 Pelvic curvature Figure 8.19

33 Abnormal Spinal Curvatures
from disease, paralysis of trunk muscles, poor posture, pregnancy, or congenital defect scoliosis – abnormal lateral curvature most common usually in thoracic region particularly of adolescent girls developmental abnormality in which the body and arch fail to develop on one side of the vertebrae kyphosis (hunchback) – exaggerated thoracic curvature usually from osteoporosis, also osteomalacia or spinal tuberculosis, or wrestling or weightlifting in young boys lordosis (swayback) – exaggerated lumbar curvature is from pregnancy or obesity Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) Scoliosis (b) Kyphosis (“hunchback”) (c) Lordosis (“hunchback”) Key Normal Pathological Figure 8.21

34 General Structure of Vertebra
body (centrum) mass of spongy bone that contains red bone marrow covered with thin shell of compact bone weight bearing portion vertebral foramina collectively form vertebral canal for spinal cord spinous process projection extending from the apex of arch extends posteriorly and downward transverse process extends laterally from point where pedicel and lamina meet processes from the vertebra above Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Posterior Spinous process Superior articular facet Lamina Vertebral arch Transverse process Vertebral foramen Pedicle Body Anterior (a) 2nd lumbar vertebra (L2) Nucleus pulposus Anulus fibrosus (b) Intervertebral disc Figure 8.22

35 Intervertebral Foramen and Discs
passageway for spinal nerves intervertebral discs (23) first one between C2 and C3 last one between L5 and sacrum pad bind vertebrae together support weight of the body absorb shock herniated disc (‘ruptured’ or ‘slipped’ disc) puts painful pressure on spinal nerve or spinal cord Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior articular process of L1 Inferior vertebral notch of L1 L1 Intervertebral foramen Superior vertebral notch of L2 L2 Spinous process Intervertebral disc L3 Inferior articular process of L3 Figure 8.23b (b) Left lateral view

36 Cervical Vertebra C1 - Atlas
atlas (C1) supports the head has no body allows nodding motion of skull gesturing ‘yes’ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Transverse process L2 Body (centrum) Intervertebral disc Inferior articular process of L2 Superior articular process of L3 L3 Lamina Figure 8.23a (a) Posterior (dorsal) view

37 Cervical Vertebra C2 - Axis
axis (C2) allows rotation of the head gesturing ‘no’ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Dens (odontoid process) Superior articular facet Body Transverse foramen Transverse process Pedicle Inferior articular process Lamina Spinous process (b) Axis Figure 8.24b

38 Sacrum (Anterior View)
sacrum – bony plate that forms the posterior wall of the pelvic cavity once considered the seat of the soul in children, five separate sacral vertebrae (S1 – S5) begin fusion around age 16 and complete fusion by age 26 anterior surface 4 pair of large anterior sacral (pelvic) foramina allow for passage of nerves and arteries into the pelvic organs Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior articular process Sacral promontory Ala S1 S2 Transverse lines S3 Anterior sacral foramina S4 S5 Co1 Coccyx Co2 Co3 Co4 (a) Anterior view Figure 8.26a

39 Coccyx coccyx – usually consists of four small vertebrae (Co1 – Co4)
sometimes five fuse into a single, triangular bone by age 20 – 30 fractured during difficult childbirth or by hard fall on buttocks provide attachment for muscles of the pelvic floor Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior articular process Sacral canal Median sacral crest Auricular surface Lateral sacral crest Posterior sacral foramina Sacral hiatus Horn Transverse process Coccyx Figure 8.26b (b) Posterior view

40 Thoracic Cage consists of thoracic vertebrae, sternum and ribs forms conical enclosure for lungs and heart provides attachment for pectoral girdle and upper limbs broad base and narrower apex rhythmically expanded by respiratory muscles to draw air into the lungs costal margin – inferior border of thoracic cage formed by the downward arc of ribs protect thoracic organs, but also the spleen, most of the liver, and to some extent the kidneys Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sternoclavicular joint Acromioclavicular joint Sternum: T1 Suprasternal notch 1 Clavicular notch Pectoral girdle: Clavicle Manubrium Scapula 2 Angle 3 Body True ribs (1–7) 4 5 Xiphoid process 6 Costal cartilages 7 1 1 8 Floating ribs (11–12) 12 T12 False ribs (8–12) 9 10 L1 Figure 8.27 Costal margin

41 Sternum sternum (breastbone) – bony plate anterior to the heart
divided into three regions: Manubrium body (gladiolus) longest part of sternum sternal angle – point where body joins manubrium ribs attach along scalloped lateral margins xiphoid inferior end of sternum attachment for some of abdominal muscles in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, improperly performed chest compressions can drive xiphoid process into the liver and cause a fatal hemorrhage

42 Ribs 12 pairs of ribs no difference between sexes
posterior (proximal) end attached to vertebral column anterior (distal) ends mostly attached to the sternum costal cartilages composed of hyaline cartilage attach anterior ends to sternum Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Neck Shaft Head Superior Costal groove Inferior Tubercle Angle (b) Ribs 2–10 Articular facet for transverse process Articular facets for vertebral bodies Figure 8.28b Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior articular facet Transverse costal facet for rib 6 Tubercle Superior costal facet for rib 6 Neck Rib 6 Head T6 Figure 8.29b (b) Superior view

43 True and False Ribs Figure 8.27 true ribs (ribs 1 to 7)
each has its own costal cartilage connecting it to the sternum false ribs (ribs 8-12) lack independent cartilaginous connection to the sternum floating ribs (ribs 11 – 12) articulate with bodies of vertebrae T11 and T12 no cartilaginous connection to the sternum or any of the higher costal cartilages Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sternoclavicular joint Acromioclavicular joint Sternum: T1 Suprasternal notch 1 Clavicular notch Pectoral girdle: Clavicle Manubrium Scapula 2 Angle 3 Body True ribs (1–7) 4 5 Xiphoid process 6 Costal cartilages 7 1 1 8 Floating ribs (11–12) 12 T12 False ribs (8–12) 9 10 L1 Costal margin Figure 8.27

44 Pectoral Girdle pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle) – supports the arm
consists of two bones on each side of the body clavicle (collarbone) and scapula (shoulder blade) clavicle articulates medially to the sternum and laterally to the scapula sternoclavicular joint acromioclavicular joint scapula articulates with the humerus glenohumeral joint - shoulder joint easily dislocated due to loose attachment

45 Clavicle Figure 8.30 clavicle - S-shaped, somewhat flattened bone
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sternal end Acromial end Conoid tubercle (a) Superior view Figure 8.30 Conoid tubercle Sternal end Acromial end (b) Inferior view clavicle - S-shaped, somewhat flattened bone sternal end - rounded head acromial end – flattened braces the shoulder keeping upper limb away from the midline of the body most frequently fractured bone in the body

46 Scapula scapula – named for its resemblance to a spade or shovel
suprascapular notch – conspicuous notch on superior border provides passage for a nerve spine – transverse ridge on posterior surface complex lateral angle of scapula has three main features: acromion – platelike extension of the spine coracoid process – shaped like a bent finger glenoid cavity – shallow socket that articulates with the head of the humerus

47 Scapula Figure 8.31 Superior border Suprascapular notch Superior angle
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior border Suprascapular notch Superior angle Acromion Acromion Supraspinous fossa Coracoid process Lateral angle Glenoid cavity Spine Subscapular fossa Infraspinous fossa Lateral border Medial border Inferior angle (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.31

48 Upper Limb upper limb is divided into four regions containing a total of 30 bones per limb brachium (arm proper) – extends from shoulder to elbow contains only one bone - humerus antebrachium (forearm) – extends from elbow to wrist contains two bones - radius and ulna carpus (wrist) contains 8 small bones arranged in 2 rows manus (hand) 19 bones in 2 groups 5 metacarpals in palm 14 phalanges in fingers

49 Humerus Figure 8.32 proximal end distal end
hemispherical head that articulates with the glenoid cavity of scapula distal end rounded capitulum articulates with head of radius trochlea articulates with ulna lateral and medial epicondyles olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna coronoid fossa radial fossa Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Greater tubercle Greater tubercle Head Lesser tubercle Anatomical neck Surgical neck Intertubercular sulcus Nutrient foramen Deltoid tuberosity Deltoid tuberosity Figure 8.32 Coronoid fossa Radial fossa Medial supracondylar ridge Lateral supracondylar ridge Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Capitulum Olecranon fossa Trochlea (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view

50 Radius Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olecranon Olecranon Trochlear notch Radial notch of ulna Head of radius radius head – disc-shape, allows for rotation around the longitudinal axis of the bone during pronation and supination of hand superior surface articulates with capitulum on humerus side of disc spins on radial notch on ulna neck radial tuberosity for biceps muscle styloid process can be palpated near thumb ulnar notch Head of radius Coronoid process Neck of radius Neck of radius Ulnar tuberosity Radial tuberosity Ulna Radius Interosseous borders Interosseous membrane Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Articular facets Styloid process (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.33

51 Ulna and Interosseous Membrane
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olecranon Olecranon ulna trochlear notch articulates with trochlea of humerus olecranon – bony point at back of elbow coronoid process radial notch holds head of radius styloid process interosseous membrane ligament attaches radius to ulna along interosseous margin of each bone enables the two elbow joints to share the load Trochlear notch Radial notch of ulna Head of radius Head of radius Coronoid process Neck of radius Neck of radius Ulnar tuberosity Radial tuberosity Ulna Radius Interosseous borders Interosseous membrane Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Articular facets Styloid process (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.33

52 Carpal Bones 8 bones form wrist 2 rows (4 bones each) Figure 8.34a
allow movements of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction 2 rows (4 bones each) proximal row – scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform pisiform is a sesamoid developed by age 9 to12 in tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle distal row trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Distal phalanx II Key to carpal bones Middle phalanx II Distal row Proximal row Proximal phalanx II III II Distal phalanx I Head IV Phalanges Body V Proximal phalanx I Base I Head Metacarpal bones Body First metacarpal Base Hamulus of hamate Trapezoid Hamate Trapezium Carpal bones Pisiform Carpal bones Capitate Triquetrum Scaphoid Lunate (a) Anterior view Figure 8.34a

53 Metacarpals and Phalanges
metacarpals - bones of the palm metacarpal I proximal to base of thumb metacarpal V proximal to base of little finger phalanges - bones of the fingers thumb or pollex has two phalanges fingers have three phalanges Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Distal phalanx II Key to carpal bones Middle phalanx II Distal row Proximal row Proximal phalanx II III II Distal phalanx I Head IV Phalanges Body V Proximal phalanx I Base I Head Metacarpal bones Body First metacarpal Base Hamulus of hamate Trapezoid Hamate Trapezium Carpal bones Pisiform Carpal bones Capitate Triquetrum Scaphoid Lunate (a) Anterior view Figure 8.34a

54 pelvic girdle – consists of a complete ring composed of three bones
two hip (coxal) bones sacrum that is also part of the vertebral column pelvis – bowl-shaped structure composed of the two coxal bones and sacrum supports trunk on the lower limbs and protects viscera, lower colon, urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organs sacroiliac joint - joins hipbone to the vertebral column pubic symphysis – the interpubic disc and adjacent regions of the pubic bone on each side Pelvic Girdle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Iliac crest Iliac fossa Base of sacrum Ilium Anterior superior iliac spine Sacroiliac joint Pelvic surface of sacrum Anterior inferior iliac spine Pelvic inlet Spine Coccyx Ischium Acetabulum Body Interpubic disc Ramus Superior ramus Obturator foramen Pubis Inferior ramus Body Pubic symphysis (a) Anterosuperior view Figure 8.35a

55 Hip Bone Figure 8.36a three distinct features of hip bone
iliac crest – superior crest of hip acetabulum – the hip socket obturator foramen – large hole below acetabulum each adult hip bone is formed by the fusion of three childhood bones ileum the largest extends from the iliac crest to the center of the acetabulum ischium inferioposterior portion of hip heavy body with prominent spine pubis (pubic bone) most anterior portion of the hip bone Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ilium Ischium Pubis Iliac crest Anterior gluteal line Inferior gluteal line Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior Iliac spine Posterior inferior Iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine r Greater sciatic notch Body of ilium Acetabulum Superior ramus of pubis Ischial spine Body of pubis Lesser sciatic notch Inferior ramus of pubis Body of ischium Ischial tuberosity Obturator foramen Ramus of ischium (a) Lateral view Figure 8.36a

56 Comparison of Male and Female
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Male Female Pelvic brim Pelvic inlet Obturator foramen Pubic arch 120° 90° Figure 8.37 male - heavier and thicker due to forces exerted by stronger muscles female - wider and shallower, and adapted to the needs of pregnancy and childbirth, larger pelvic inlet and outlet for passage of infant’s head

57 Lower Limb lower limb divided into four regions containing 30 bones per limb femoral region (thigh) – extends from hip to knee region contains the femur and patella crural region (leg proper) – extends from knee to ankle contains medial tibia and lateral fibula tarsal region (tarsus) – ankle – the union of the crural region with the foot tarsal bones are considered part of the foot pedal region (pes) - foot composed of 7 tarsal bones, 5 metatarsals, and 14 phalanges in the toes

58 Femur Figure 8.38 longest and strongest bone of the body
hemispherical head that articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis forms ball-and-socket joint fovea capitis – pit in head of femur for attachment of a ligament greater and lesser trochanters for muscle attachment medial and lateral condyles and epicondyles found distally patellar and popliteal surface Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Head Neck Intertrochanteric crest Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Spiral line Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Shaft Medial supracondylar line Lateral supracondylar line Popliteal surface Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Lateral condyle Medial condyle Intercondylar fossa Base of patella Articular facets Apex of patella (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.38

59 Patella (Kneecap) patella - triangular sesamoid bone embedded in tendon of the knee cartilaginous at birth ossifies at 3 to 6 year quadriceps femoris tendon extends from the anterior muscle of the thigh to the patella continues as the patellar ligament from the patella to the tibia Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Greater trochanter Head Neck Intertrochanteric crest Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Spiral line Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Shaft Medial supracondylar line Lateral supracondylar line Popliteal surface Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Lateral condyle Medial condyle Intercondylar fossa Base of patella Articular facets Apex of patella (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.38

60 Tibia Figure 8.39 tibia - thick, medial, weight-bearing bone
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. tibia - thick, medial, weight-bearing bone only weight bearing bone of the crural region broad superior head medial and lateral condyles fairly flat articular surfaces articulate with condyle of femur medial malleolus – bony knob on inside of ankle Intercondylar eminence Medial condyle Lateral condyle Apex Head of fibula Proximal tibiofibular joint Tibial tuberosity Lateral surface Interosseous membrane Anterior crest Tibia Fibula Distal tibiofibular joint Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus Lateral malleolus (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.39

61 Fibula fibula – slender, lateral strut that helps stabilizes ankle
does not bear any body weight spare bone tissue for grafts head - proximal end apex – point of the head lateral malleolus - distal expansion, bony knob on lateral side of ankle joined to tibia by interosseous membrane Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Intercondylar eminence Medial condyle Lateral condyle Apex Head of fibula Proximal tibiofibular joint Tibial tuberosity Lateral surface Interosseous membrane Anterior crest Tibia Fibula Distal tibiofibular joint Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus Lateral malleolus (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 8.39

62 The Ankle and Foot Figure 8.40a
tarsal bones – arranged in proximal and distal groups tarsal bones are shaped and arranged differently from carpal bones due to load-bearing role of the ankle calcaneus – largest tarsal bone forms heel distal portion is point of attachment for calcaneal (Achilles) tendon talus is most superior tarsal bone forms ankle joint with tibia and fibula sits upon calcaneus and articulates with navicular proximal row of tarsal bones talus, calcaneus, and navicular distal row of tarsal bones medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms and cuboid Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Distal phalanx I Distal phalanx V Proximal phalanx I Middle phalanx V Metatarsal Proximal phalanx V I II III IV V Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Talus Calcaneus Trochlear surface of talus Key to tarsal bones Distal group Tuberosity of calcaneus Proximal group (a) Superior (dorsal) view Figure 8.40a

63 The Foot remaining bones of foot are similar in name and arrangement to the hand metatarsals metatarsal I is proximal to the great toe (hallux) metatarsal V is proximal to the little toe proximal base, intermediate shaft, and distal head phalanges 2 in great toe proximal and distal phalanx 3 in all other toes proximal, middle and distal phalanx Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Distal phalanx I Distal phalanx V Proximal phalanx I Middle phalanx V Metatarsal Proximal phalanx V I II III IV V Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Talus Calcaneus Trochlear surface of talus Key to tarsal bones Distal group Tuberosity of calcaneus Proximal group (a) Superior (dorsal) view Figure 8.40a

64 Embryonic Limb Rotation
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Thumb Future thumb Elbow Future great toe Knee Great toe Figure 8.41 (a) Seven weeks (b) Eight weeks rotation of upper and lower limbs in opposite directions starts seventh week of embryonic development largest digit medial in foot and lateral in hand each limb rotates about 90° in opposite directions rotation also explains why elbow flexes posteriorly and knee flexes anteriorly

65 Foot Arches Figure 8.42a sole of foot is not flat on ground
3 springy arches absorb stress medial longitudinal arch from heel to hallux formed from the calcaneus, talus, lateral longitudinal arch from heel to little toe transverse arch across middle of foot arches held together by short, strong ligaments pes planus (flat feet) – excessive weight, repetitious stress, or congenital weakness Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch Figure 8.42a (a) Inferior (plantar) view

66 Skeletal Adaptations for Bipedalism
humans are only animals habitually bipedal 3.6 million year old human footprints indicate upright walking adaptations strong, springy foot arches great toe not opposable femurs angle inward so knees are closer together – erect posture requires less muscular effort viscera supported in bowl-shaped pelvis insertions of gluteal muscles differ from other primates

67 Bipedalism and Limb Adaptations
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (a) Foot (b) Knee Chimpanzee Human Figure 8.43(1)a,b Chimpanzee Human

68 Bipedalism and Upright Stance
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (c) Gluteal muscles (d) Pelvis (e) Vertebral column Chimpanzee Chimpanzee Chimpanzee Human Human Human Figure 8.43(1)c Figure 8.43(2)d,e

69 Bipedalism and Head Position
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (f) Skull Supraorbital ridge Pivot Foramen magnum Chimpanzee Figure 8.43(2)f Pivot Foramen magnum Human


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