Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tracheostomy May 4th /05.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Tracheostomy May 4th /05."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tracheostomy May 4th /05

2 History Greek tracheo plus stoma (mouth)
 creation of a opening in the trachea by suturing the skin of the neck to the tracheal mucosa  the placement of a tube through the anterior neck into a tracheotomy Asclepiades in the first century BC described their use for of upper airway obstruction relief Clin Chest Med 2003

3 History 18th & 19th centuries Trousseau diphtheria epidemic
 surge in the tracheostomy performance & technique improvements but Still mortality 73% 1909 Jackson modern tracheostomy description 1969 Toy & Weinstein the percutaneous tracheostomy 1985 Ciaglia percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy Clin Chest Med 2003

4 Indications Permanent tracheostomy post laryngectomy
Relief of upper airway obstruction Rx uncontrolled tracheobronchial secretions Prolonged mechanical ventilation Clin Chest Med 2003

5 Advantage of Trach over ETT
Stable airway Minimize laryngeal injury Improved pulmonary toilet and oral hygiene improved patient comfort potential for speech and oral feeding Decreased requirement for sedation or restraints Facilitated ventilator weaning Shorter intensive care unit stay Clin Chest Med 2003

6 Physiological changes
Loss of warming ,humidifying & filtering function of upper airway  thick secretions Defective cough & ciliary function Tube induced mucus production  increased risk of atelectasis Loss of smelling decreased appetite

7 Anatomy Adult trachea 10 -13 cm larynx to carina
trachea slides easily in the cephalo-caudal direction tremendous variability With neck extension half the length is above the thoracic inlet

8 Anatomy Incomplete rings with post membrane At thoracic inlet
trachea dives from anterior to posterior behind the thymus, innominate vein & artery In the elderly this angle can approach 90 degrees

9 Anatomy Approaching the trachea anteriorly in the midline encounters :
superficial cervical fascia, crossing branches of the ant. jugular veins sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles thyroid isthmus 2nd ring level pretracheal fat pad inferior thyroid veins & occasionally a thyroid ima artery






15 Percutaneous Dilatational Tarch
Selection Criteria Uncomplicated translaryngeal intubation Palpable cricoid cartilage at least 3 cm above the sternal angle Appropriate neck extension Hemodynamically stable FIO2 < below 60% PEEP < 10 cm H2O Clin Chest Med 2003

16 Percutaneous Dilatational Tarch
Exclusion criteria Distorted neck anatomy  head and neck tumors, thyromegaly or scarring Refractory coagulopathy Tracheomalacia Neck soft tissues infection Inability to extend the neck  cervical fusion, fracture, or arthritis Clin Chest Med 2003

17 Cricothyroidotomy Emergency situation
Most reliable landmark  laryngeal prominence Palpation along the midline inferiorly toward the sternal notch the cricothyroid membrane immediately above the cricoid cartilage. Clin Chest Med 2003

18 Cricothyroidotomy The cricothyroid membrane is identified and incised along its inferior border transversely Tracheal hook is inserted under the thyroid cartilage. Gentle vertical dilation is to allow passage of a 6 mm or 7 mm tube Clin Chest Med 2003

19 Tube-free tracheostomy
Alternative to tracheostomy tube when it is expected to remain for months to years To avoid the morbidity associated with an indwelling tube horizontal omega-shaped skin incision extending beyond the margins of the sternocleidomastoid & arching to the level of the cricoidcartilage Creation of a muscle & tracheal flap Clin Chest Med 2003

20 Tube-free tracheostomy
Subplatysmal flaps inferiorly  manubrium laterally  beyond the sternocleidomastoid superiorly  hyoid bone. Thyroid isthmus is divided the two lobes mobilized to be sutured gathering the accompanying strap muscles & tendons Clin Chest Med 2003

21 Tube-free tracheostomy
Anterior tracheal flap elevating the 2nd & 3rd tracheal rings The stoma is intubated until the patient is stable and breathing spontaneously  decannulated. Clin Chest Med 2003

22 Minitarcheostomy Matthews and Hopkinson in 1984
novel, minimally invasive method to facilitate endotracheal suctioning and clear secretions 4 mm cannula through cricothyroid membrane trachea can be stimulated by a catheter to produce a cough to clear secretions. Clin Chest Med 2003

23 Minitarcheostomy preservation of glottic function, secretions can be coughed up via the normal route Speech and swallowing are unaffected. The cannula is capped when not in use Clin Chest Med 2003

24 Minitarcheostomy Indications
Prophylactic Postop major thoracic or upper abdom Sx Extubated pts with expected poor cough Therapeutic sputum retention pneumonia, COPD exacerbations major atelectasis (usually postoperative), depressed LOC thoracic trauma Respiratory muscle weakness. Clin Chest Med 2003

25 Minitarcheostomy The success rate 96% to 100%
The average duration of use 1 week There were no late complication 1-4 y 2 small RCT post pulmonary Sx 30 & 25 Pts Decrease in post op atelectasis & pneumonia & need of bronch J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991 Eur J Surg 1991

26 Trach Tube selection Diameter The smallest outer diameter tube
will minimize the risk of tracheal stenosis The widest inner diameter  decrease airflow resistance Size 8 men & 6 women. Inner cannula  safe & simple cleaning Clin Chest Med 2003

27 Trach Tube selection Cuffed tube  mechanical ventilation
Uncuffed tube  off ventilator to decrease work of breathing Wire-reinforced tube  enforced security & position tube Clin Chest Med 2003

28 Trach Tube selection The fenestrated tube  spontaneously breathing pt
for easy phonation with the tube capped can be blocked with cannula for ventilation High chance to be blocked by secretion , blood or granulation tissue  needs changing frequently Clin Chest Med 2003

29 Trach Tube selection Tight-to-shaft Bivona tube
 intermittent ventilation high pressure, saline filled balloon when deflated is flush with the tube without inner cannula One way speaking valve  Allow phonation exhalation through vocal cord Clin Chest Med 2003


31 Decanulation Fenestrated tube  cuff deflated  cuffless tube
Downsizing progressively smaller size tubes Allows the stoma to gradually fill in around the tube. Decannulation plug Tube removal dry, sterile dressing

32 Complications Early Late Bleeding , pneumothorax,
SC emphysema pneumonia , Injury to recurrent laryngeal nerve Trachoesophageal fistula Accidental extubation Late Tracheal stenosis , Tracheomalacia Skin breakdown Cuff rupture or herniation

33 Should we trach more Pts ?
A lot of studies still no solid answer Different patient populations Different timing of tracheostomy Different surgical techniques & experience

34 Early Vs late Trach in Burn Pt
Prospective Randomized controlled 19962000 21 pt early Trach ET Vs 23 trach D 14 Predicted probability of prolonged ventilation formula 1ry outcome  hospital stay & mortality 2ry outcome extubation rate , oxygenation & pneumonia rate Jr of Burn Care & Rehab 2002




38 Early Vs late Trach in SICU Pt
Retrospective 2000 2002 Early trach < 7 Vs late > 7 days Outcomes mechanical ventilation ,VAP , ICU & hospital stay Am Jr of Surgery 2005




42 Early Vs Late Trach in Head Injury Pts
2 y prospective randomized study Early 5th or 6th day Vs late Isolated severe head injury Admission GCS < 8 Cerebral contusion on CT scan GCS score 8 on the fifth day without any sedation Outcomes : ventilation , VAP , ICU & hospital stay Trauma 2004




46 Surgical Vs Percutaneous Trach
Few RCT No mortality difference Time advantage for PT  less prep time Shorter time from required to be done PT may have lower bleeding rate Anaesth Intensive Care 1999 Chest 2000


48 LMA instead of ETT in Trach
Randomized prospective 60 pts Bedside trach with brocoscopic aid Outcomes : procedure time oxygenation & ventilation complications Intensive care med 2002



51 Thanks

Download ppt "Tracheostomy May 4th /05."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google