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CHAPTER EIGHT South Asia. Housekeeping Items Today, we have the Vietnamese food group presentating. I would also like to do a bit more on Africa, and.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER EIGHT South Asia. Housekeeping Items Today, we have the Vietnamese food group presentating. I would also like to do a bit more on Africa, and."— Presentation transcript:


2 Housekeeping Items Today, we have the Vietnamese food group presentating. I would also like to do a bit more on Africa, and then start on South Asia. The take-home mid-terms or term papers are due on Wednesday. The university and the faculty union are in talks with a mediator, and we have a union meeting tomorrow, so I should know more about what’s likely to happen by Wednesday.

3 Housekeeping Items (cont’d) See the following web site for map and graph data on the current situation in the Mideast: East.html East.html I would like it if the Tibet and hummus groups would send me their PowerPoint presentations. Tomorrow, March 8 th, is the 100 th anniversary of International Women’s Day (IWD). IWD had its roots in the socialist labour movement. Initiated by the the Socialist Party of the U.S., it was first celebrated in Germany in 1911. See flyer…

4 South Asia

5 I.THE GEOGRAPHIC SETTING Easy region to define Indian Ocean to east, south, and west Himalaya Mountains to the north 1/5 the land area of Africa 2x the population of Africa Unified through village culture; common experience with British colonialism

6 A. Physical Patterns Landforms 60 million years ago: Indian-Australian Plate collides with Eurasian Plate Himalayas formed from crumpling of both plates Lots of earthquakes South of Himalayas are Indus and Ganga river basins South of river basins is the Deccan Plateau, flanked by Eastern and Western Ghats

7 A. Physical Patterns Climate Monsoons: summertime winds bringing rain from the Indian Ocean Amplified by ITCZ, orographic effect Dry season: caused by winds blowing out from Central Asia Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra Rivers Flow from meltwater in the Himalayas Eroding the Himalayas and depositing silt throughout lowland areas

8 Monsoons

9 Climate Zones

10 B.Human Patterns Over Time The Indus Valley Civilization First settled agricultural communities in region Indus River valley and Saraswati River Traded with Mesopotamia and eastern Africa Technologically advanced Agricultural system: save monsoon surplus for dry season Culture and biological traits survive among Dravidians of South India

11 Indus Valley Civilization Source: Wikipedia

12 B.Human Patterns Over Time A Series of Invasions Aryans: invaders from Central and SW Asia 3500 years ago Instituted caste system, developed Hinduism Other influences: Persians, Macedonians, Arab traders Mughals: Turkic Persians from Central Asia Controlled northern and central South Asia Introduced Islam Replaced by British rule

13 Great Fortress at Agra

14 Best Known Mughal Structure: The Taj Mahal (source: Wikipedia)

15 B.Human Patterns Over Time The Legacies of Colonial Rule British: colonized South Asia from 1830s to 1947 Afghanistan: never directly ruled Nepal: nominally independent Bhutan: protectorate of British India Destruction of South Asian manufacturing (scale of which was far larger) & loss of livelihood Land taxes led to consolidation under major landowners Creation of Indian ‘diaspora’

16 British Indian Empire, 1860-1920

17 B.Human Patterns Over Time Economic Influence Cotton, jute, tea, sugar, and indigo exported to supply Britain and its colonies Focus on agriculture led to increased family size Trading cities boomed, growth of railroads Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai Many British institutions remain in place Bureaucratic, but generally successful Democracy in India

18 B.Human Patterns Over Time Independence and Partition Gandhi: brought civil disobedience to undermine British authority 1947: independence, partition of British India into India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim)‏ Done to appease Muslim leaders Two parts to Pakistan, split by India Result of divide-and-rule tactics used by British Source: Wikipedia

19 Independence and Partition

20 B.Human Patterns Over Time Since Independence India: world’s most populous democracy Dismantling oppressive caste and gender barriers Growth of industry and services Still, poorest region after sub-Saharan Africa Conflict: East Pakistan (Bangladesh) vs. West Pakistan Civil wars in Sri Lanka, Afghanistan (& foreign intervention) Nuclear showdown between India and Pakistan

21 C.Population Patterns One of most densely populated regions in the world Only 30% urban Several of world’s largest cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Dhaka)‏ Urban migration enhanced by: Business opportunities Fewer caste restrictions Agricultural modernization

22 Wednesday Housekeeping Items The take-homes and essays are due today. It looks like there will be a strike beginning tomorrow. Let’s hope it’s short… There is a celebration of International Women’s Day tonight downtown (see flyer) and also a showing of a film about Tibet at Worldbridger. Fair trade coffee is available in the Management Building (250) – see the e-mail. We will finish up South Asia today and I will show a short film on Bhutan, if time permits. I also looked into some of the items we discussed on Monday.

23 Wednesday Housekeeping Items Sikkim used to be an independent country, though it was continuously invaded by Nepal. In the late 1700s, the Chinese came to the nation’s assistance only to assert their own control. It later became a British protectorate, then part of British India. It regained its independence (actually, semi-autonomy in most matters) and then, in 1975, voted by referendum to become a full-fledged state of India. Chinese and India later did a deal – the Chinese recognized India’s sovereignty over Sikkim, and India recognized that of the Chinese over Tibet. China and India have also had a series of border disputes and skirmishes, exacerbated by India’s support for the Dalai Lama, culminating in a brief war in the fall of 1962.

24 Wednesday Housekeeping Items Kashmir has been a source of conflict between India and Pakistan (and even China). India and Pakistan have had several skirmishes and wars over it. Currently, 43% is controlled by India, 37% by Pakistan and 20% by China.

25 Wednesday Housekeeping Items Despite being illegal since 1961, dowries are still routinely paid to the families of grooms, especially amongst higher-caste families. Amongst low-caste families, it is more common to pay a small, symbolic bride price. The approximately 7000 recorded bride burnings per year are sometimes linked to dowry disputes. Tata Group markets one of the most fuel efficient cars in the world (outside of electric) – the Nano – and it produces less CO 2 as well. They are also involved in turning wastes into resources (cement) and innovative water conservation and reclamation projects.

26 Population Distribution

27 C.Population Patterns India expected to become most populous country in the world in 2020 $1 billion per year on population control 1/3 of South Asia’s people are under age 15 Demographic momentum High birth rate related to: Need for children to support parents in old age Lack of gender equity Preference for male children

28 Declining Fertility Rates

29 Population Pyramids

30 II.CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC ISSUES Despite few countries, tremendous diversity Can be overwhelming to outsiders seeking to understand Many cultural characteristics touch all lives Vary in practice throughout the region

31 A. Sociocultural Issues Village Life Public spaces often dominated by men Purdah: seclusion of women from non-family male gazes Linked to status 70% of South Asians live in villages Traditional trips by urbanites back to ancestral villages

32 Material Culture of Purdah

33 A. Sociocultural Issues Urban Life Portrayed as chaotic, crowded, dilapidated Beyond main streets, compact neighborhoods functioning as villages Multicultural, educated populations

34 Village Within Mumbai

35 A. Sociocultural Issues Language and Ethnicity Everyone is a minority in South Asia 18 official languages in India, hundreds of others Invasions, migrations result in complex map of ethnicity Austro-Asiatic languages from oldest settlers Dravidian languages: southern India, Indus River valley Indo-European languages: date from Aryan invasion  Urdu, Hindi: major language, different scripts

36 Languages

37 A. Sociocultural Issues Hinduism 800 million of the world’s 900 million Hindus live in India Complex set of beliefs, often contradictory local traditions All gods are illusory manifestations of the ultimate divinity Caste: rooted in religion, dietary rules Reincarnation: everything that wishes will be reborn after death

38 A. Sociocultural Issues Geographic Patterns in Religious Beliefs Hindus most numerous, mostly in India Ganga plain is hearth Buddhism began in South Asia as a reform movement 1% of South Asia is today Buddhist (Sri Lanka, Bhutan)‏ Most Buddhists found east of the region now Muslim majority in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives Muslim minority in India (120 million people)‏

39 A. Sociocultural Issues Geographic Patterns in Religious Beliefs Sikhism: Draws from Hinduism and Islam Found mostly in Punjab and in diaspora outside India Jainism: Another reform movement of Hinduism Found in western India and urban areas Parsi: Modern form of Zoroastrianism Found in western Indian cities Also, Christian and Jewish populations

40 Religions

41 A. Sociocultural Issues The Hindu-Muslim Relationship Often closely linked within communities However, Islam often linked to low-status castes within Hinduism Run slaughterhouses, which is offensive to Hinduism Some Hindus convert to try to escape caste system Communal conflict: name for inter-religious conflict

42 A. Sociocultural Issues Caste : Hindu system of dividing society into hereditary hierarchical categories Incorporated to a degree by other religious groups in South Asia 4 main varna (divisions)‏ Brahmins: priestly caste Kshatriyas: warriors and rulers Vaishyas: landowning farmers and merchants Sudras: laborers and artisans 2 other groups: Harijans (too low for a caste) and Adivasis (descendents of aboriginal Indians)‏

43 A. Sociocultural Issues Jatis: subcastes associated with specific occupations (less true in today’s economy)‏ Still, common culture and spatiality to a jati Hierarchy of jatis often a source of conflict Caste and class no longer strictly connected Effort to end discrimination Successful in urban areas, less so in rural Only 5% of marriages cross jati lines

44 Protest Against Quotas for Lower-Status Castes

45 A. Sociocultural Issues Geographic Patterns in the Status of Women Gender inequity worst in belt from Afghanistan to Bangladesh Gender equity best in eastern, central, southern India and Sri Lanka Upper caste women more restricted Urban women less restricted Muslim women have lower standard of living than other women Oppression in Afghanistan under Taliban

46 A. Sociocultural Issues Purdah: seclusion of women during reproductive years Strongest in northwest and Indo-Gangetic Plain Veiling of women even in Hindu communities Arranged marriage: bride’s family pays dowry to groom’s family Bride becomes labour for mother-in-law Childbirth path to autonomy

47 A. Sociocultural Issues Bride Burning and Female Infanticide History of killing wives in “accidents” to enable male remarriage, new dowry 7026 murders in 2005 Because of future dowry, many newborn girls killed Until recently, groom’s family would pay “bride price” to marry Dowry technically illegal Still, prestige and money skewed toward males

48 A. Sociocultural Issues End of purdah, other oppressions might lower birth rate and encourage economic growth End of Taliban rule has led to some progress in Afghanistan, but still fragile & uncertain Women’s bazaar in Mazar-e-Sharif Poor representation by women in Indian legislature (9%)‏ Quotas in place for Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh legislatures

49 Female Literacy in India, 2005

50 B.Economic and Political Issues Economic Issues Startling economic contrasts India: 100s of millions of poor as well as a high-tech sector and space program Most wealth disparity results from post- independence governance Agriculture: basis for most regional economies Growth of industry and services IT in India (see “Bombay Calling”)

51 B.Economic and Political Issues Agriculture and the Green Revolution 60% of region’s labor, but only 25% of GDP Dramatic increases in productivity, still least efficient sector of the economy Double-cropping common (dry season/wet season)‏ Green Revolution: new agricultural tools and techniques (beginning in late 1960s)‏ New seeds, fertilizers, etc. New dams created water for irrigation, as well as hydroelectric power for industry

52 Agriculture in South Asia

53 B.Economic and Political Issues Agriculture and the Green Revolution India: still not self-sufficient in food Climate change, declining soil fertility Led to consolidation of land holdings, many poor farmers forced into wage labor Increased food productivity leads to more exports, not more food in South Asia Agroecology: traditional methods of fertilizing crops and using natural predators to control pests

54 B.Economic and Political Issues Industry over Agriculture: A Vision of Self- Sufficiency Early nationalization of industry had poor results Inefficient, ignored market incentives Focused on big-ticket items most South Asians could not afford Only impacted a small percentage of industrial workers (still only 12% of Indian labor)‏ Nonetheless, some major industrial giants like Tata

55 Tata Group: India’s Industrial Giant Tata CapitalTata Capital, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tata Sons Limited, the apex holding company of the Tata Group. Tata CommunicationsTata Communications, also known as Tata VSNL, a communication company acquired in 2002. Tata Consultancy ServicesTata Consultancy Services, one of the World's leading IT Services companies. Tata ElxsiTata Elxsi, another Tata IT company. Tata Interactive SystemsTata Interactive Systems (TIS), is a provider of performance support systems and e- learning platforms. Tata MotorsTata Motors, world's eighteenth largest automobile company, and manufacturer of the Tata NanoTata Nano Tata PowerTata Power, India’s largest private sector electricity generating company. Tata SteelTata Steel, World's 5th largest steel company. Tata Tea LimitedTata Tea Limited, World's second largest tea business, owner of Tetley.Tetley Tata TeleservicesTata Teleservices, India's second CDMA telecom company. Tata DoCoMoTata DoCoMo, a GSM based mobile company with alliance with NTT docomoNTT docomo Tata Chemicals Tata SkyTata Sky, a Direct To Home service company in alliance with British Sky Broadcasting.Direct To HomeBritish Sky Broadcasting Tata SonsTata Sons, the holding company for many Tata companies and the owner of the Tata brand Source: Wikipedia

56 B.Economic and Political Issues Economic Reform: Achieving Global Competitiveness 1990s: India institutes market reforms Not result of SAPs, but similar disparity Indian growth not predicated on cheap labor, but on skilled labor Pakistan and Bangladesh also growing, but less industrial Services: over 50% of regional GDP Trade, transport, storage, communication

57 Per Capita Income and Industrial/IT Centers

58 B.Economic and Political Issues Differing Views of Globalization Rise of service sector and IT foretells increasing globalization of South Asia Pros: New high-paying jobs, higher standards of living, increasing demand for local goods and services Cons: Increasing economic degradation, cultural contamination, disruption of traditional economies

59 Training for the Service Economy

60 B.Economic and Political Issues Economic Development and Poverty Rates Poverty still declining in South Asia as a % Not in overall numbers because of population growth Innovative Help for the Poor Microcredit: small loans to help poor entrepreneurs (Grameen Bank)‏ Collective collateral 98% repayment rate

61 Microcredit in Action

62 B.Economic and Political Issues Political Issues India: beacon of democracy to the developing world However: Growth of corruption, demagoguery, violence Increased tension between castes Heightened religious nationalism

63 B.Economic and Political Issues Caste and Democracy in India Locally, political parties appeal to jati loyalties Infrastructure for community Nationally, major parties deny caste loyalties Increasingly overt appeals Indian government works to undercut caste discrimination

64 B.Economic and Political Issues Religious Nationalism Linkage of a religion to a particular territory Both India and Pakistan officially secular But created for particular religious groups Hindu nationalism: supported by middle and upper-caste urban men afraid of the loss of caste privilege

65 Religious Nationalism

66 B.Economic and Political Issues Conflict in Punjab Punjab: home Sikhs, divided between Pakistan and India during Partition Sikhs feel alienated from national government of India 1980s: independence movement radicalized the Sikh population ~30,000 deaths since 1980s Source: Google Images

67 B.Economic and Political Issues Conflict in Kashmir Muslim-dominated part of India Waiting on UN decision on border, divided between India, Pakistan, China 500,000 Indian troops in area Since 1947: 60,000-100,000 deaths Role of mujahedeen: Islamists inflaming conflict Many Kashmiris support independence India and Pakistan: nuclear powers

68 Regional Conflicts in South Asia

69 B.Economic and Political Issues War and Reconstruction in Afghanistan Urban elites allied with Soviets to prevent export of Islamism to Central Asia Mujahedeen allied w/USA, Pakistan against USSR After USSR left, mujahedeen splintered and Taliban came to power Taliban: conservative rural Islamists Following 9/11/01 USA, Canada, and UK, etc. intervene against Taliban Difficulty ensuring security, meeting human needs

70 Reconstruction in Afghanistan

71 B.Economic and Political Issues The Future of Democracy Status of democracy varies Indian democracy – new focus on reducing corruption and providing opportunities for women Sri Lanka – solid democracy but civil war between Sinhalese and Tamils only recently over Pakistan – quasi-democratic, but functioning as a dictatorship; strong U.S. influence Bangladesh – recent democracy, with corruption Bhutan – constitutional monarchy Nepal – just concluded civil war

72 C. Environmental Issues Deforestation Clearing of western forests 3000 years ago contributed to desertification Forests still being cleared for commercial logging and village needs Leads to erosion, landslides Social forestry (Chipko): movement encouraging local control of tree resources Substantial environmental movement in the region

73 Human Impact on South Asia

74 C. Environmental Issues 20% of world pop. but 4% of fresh water Conflict over Ganga River water India controls flow of river; has diverted to its purposes in past Bangladesh deprived of water; coastline modification Water purity in decline Disposal of bodies in Ganga Industrial waste and sewage

75 Pollution of the Ganga

76 C. Environmental Issues Industrial Pollution Vehicles and coal-burning power plants Delhi’s air: equivalent to 20 cigarettes a day Acid rain destroys good farmland Pesticide plant explosion in Bhopal (1984)‏ U.S.-owned Union Carbide Killed 3000 people, hurt 30,000 more

77 D. Measures of Human Well-Being Low GDP per capita Almost as low as sub-Saharan Africa Thriftiness leads to higher standard of living than statistics indicate Medium HDI rankings Instability in Afghanistan Low GDI rankings Lack of health care, education, and earning power for women

78 Human Well-being Rankings

79 III. Subregions of South Asia

80 A. Afghanistan and Pakistan Mountainous, arid countries Influenced by invaders Muslim and rural Home to conservative Islamist movements Afghanistan poorer than Pakistan 30 years of conflict

81 Pamir Mountains

82 A. Afghanistan and Pakistan Afghanistan Wheat, fruit, nuts, and opium production in semi-arid areas 30 million people, 45% younger than age 15 Life expectancy: 42 years (down from 47 in 2003)‏ Population growing by 2.6% per year Low literacy rates Ethnic groups: Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, Hazara, Pashtun, Baluch Kabul: 3 million people, degraded infrastructure

83 Language and Ethnicity in Afghanistan (source: Wikpedia)

84 A. Afghanistan and Pakistan Pakistan 5x population of Afghanistan Indus River critical to agriculture GDP growth rate of 6% per year 2/3 of population lives on under $2 per day Substantial military commitment

85 Cottage Industries in Pakistan

86 B. Himalayan Country Descend in altitude from north to south Very rural Muslim in west, Hindu and Buddhist in center and east Economies based on trade Quite poor Tourism adding to limited agriculture

87 C. Northwestern India Dry, yet fertile and wealthy Irrigated from Ganga Rajastan: arid, poor Punjab: provides 2/3 of India’s food reserves Corn, potatoes, sugarcane, peas, beans, onions, mustard Delhi region: industrial, home of capital 15 million people, 4 th most polluted city in the world

88 Camel Grazing

89 D. Northeastern South Asia Wet tropical climate, fertile land Dense populations Ganga-Brahmaputra delta: largest on earth Shifting and eroding landscapes West Bengal: population swelling with refugees 75% agricultural labor force, only 35% of GDP Kolkata: first British capital, now full of poverty

90 D. Northeastern South Asia Assam: Large indigenous populations Assamese, Tibeto-Burmese Agriculture, tea production, forestry, oil Bangladesh: One of region’s poorest countries; most densely populated in world 144 million people in space of Alabama Dropping poverty rates, increasing literacy Growth of textiles industry

91 Living Root Bridge, NE India

92 E. Central India Gujarat and Maharashtra: strong service and industrial sectors Mumbai: 20 million people, India’s most prosperous city Stock exchange, central bank 40% of India’s trade revenue Bollywood: Center of Hindi cinema production

93 Two Sides of Mumbai

94 F. Southern South Asia More educated than rest of India Advanced technology sector Bangalore, Chennai Election of communists, religious pluralism Kerala Environmentalism Gender equality Dravidian culture and languages

95 Microsoft Technology Center in Bangalore

96 F. Southern South Asia Sri Lanka: island off SE coast Rice, nuts, spices, tea, coconuts Rainfall: Lush forests, hydroelectric power Ethnic groups: 74% Singhalese (Buddhism) and 18% Tamils (Hindu)‏ Civil war results from conflict between ethnicities (government dominated by Singhalese)‏ 1 million refugees, economic decline

97 Colombo, Sri Lanka

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