Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Persons Living with HIV Ask ∙ Screen ∙ Intervene Developed by: The National Network of STD/HIV Prevention.
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Presentation on theme: "Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Persons Living with HIV Ask ∙ Screen ∙ Intervene Developed by: The National Network of STD/HIV Prevention."— Presentation transcript:
Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Persons Living with HIV Ask ∙ Screen ∙ Intervene Developed by: The National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers, in conjunction with the AIDS Education Training Centers Module 2: Universal Prevention Messages and Addressing Misconceptions Tailored Behavioral Interventions
Learning Objectives: Module 2 Upon completion of training, providers who care for HIV-infected persons will be able to: Deliver universal prevention messages Address misconceptions Provide tailored interventions o Brief behavioral interventions o Referrals for more intensive interventions & other prevention services
Effectiveness Brief, clinician-delivered counseling interventions help patients change behaviors related to: o Depression o Smoking o Alcohol use o Weight and diet o Physical activity Can also reduce HIV-transmission risk (Kamb 1998, Richardson 2004, Fischer 2004)
What are Prevention Messages? Statements that emphasize the need for safer behaviors to protect both the patient’s health and the health of their sexual- or needle-sharing partners
Case Example: TONY Summary from Module 1: 40 y/o man with girlfriend, but also has other male sex partners HIV+, in care Girlfriend also has HIV; Does not use condoms with her Inconsistent condom use for anal and oral sex with male partners What prevention messages would apply?
Tony: Prevention Messages Condoms could protect you from other STDs STDs can be transmitted by oral sex Unprotected sex with your girlfriend could expose her to STDs Condoms could protect your other partners from HIV
Universal Prevention Messages STDs facilitate transmission of HIV o Increase susceptibility to HIV o Increase transmissibility of HIV Risk of superinfection remains unclear Injection drug use Can still transmit HIV despite o ART o Post-exposure prophylaxis
Learning Objectives: Module 2 Upon completion of training, providers who care for HIV-infected persons will be able to: Deliver universal prevention messages Address misconceptions
What are Misconceptions? Incorrect assumptions or beliefs that patients may have about HIV transmission.
Common Misconceptions Risk of HIV transmission associated with: Specific sexual & drug using behaviors Other cofactors o Stage of infection o Viral load o Co-existing STDs Effectiveness of non-occupational post- exposure prophylaxis
Risk FactorRelative risk for a person without HIV infection of acquiring HIV infection Sex Act Insertive fellatio1 Receptive fellatio2 Insertive vaginal sex10 Receptive vaginal sex20 Insertive anal sex13 Receptive anal sex100 Condom Use Yes1 No20 Common Misconceptions: Risk of HIV transmission based on specific sexual behaviors MMWR, July 18, 2003
Common Misconceptions: Effect of ART on HIV transmission Serum viral load of HIV- infected partners (copies/mL) Risk for transmission to partners not infected with HIV (adjusted rate ratio; 95% CI) <3500Referent 3500-99995.80 (2.26-17.80) 10,000-49,9996.91 (2.96-20.15) >50,00011.87 (5.02-34.88) Per log increment viral load 2.45 (1.85-3.26) MMWR, July 18, 2003
Identifying Misconceptions What do you know about how people get HIV? What are your concerns about giving HIV to someone else? What are your concerns about getting an STD or hepatitis?
What are Tailored Behavioral Interventions? Strategies designed to change a person’s behaviors or practices in order to reduce personal health risks or risk to others
Education vs. Behavioral Interventions Patient Education Knowledge Behavioral Intervention Knowledge Attitudes/ Beliefs Behaviors Circumstances Skills Readiness NIH Consensus Conference: Brief, provider-delivered, tailored interventions in clinical setting have been shown more effective in behavior change than patient education… CDC (2001). Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing and referral. MMWR, 50 (RR-19), p 1 - 62
Tailored Interventions Use with patients at high risk for transmitting HIV and acquiring STDs: o Current sexual and substance use practices indicate risk o Recent STD diagnosis Core elements o Interactive o Based on individual circumstances o Leads to a first step
Individualized Concrete Incremental Realistic Behavioral Goal STEPS Find a First Step
Behavioral Goals: o Abstinence o Monogamy o Condom use o Reduce number of partners o Disclose to partners o Determine partners’ status o Refer partners for STD/HIV counseling & testing o Stop injection drug use o Use clean or new injecting equipment o Treatment adherence
Risk Screening focus on behaviors: How often have you shared works in the last 3 months? How often do you use condoms? When was your partner last tested for HIV? Covered in Module 1 Tailored interventions focus on circumstances, attitudes & readiness: When is it easier to use clean works? What does your partner think about condoms? Does your partner know that you’re HIV-positive? Provide responses tailored to patient circumstances
Assess Behaviors & Circumstances What & With Whom? - relationship dynamics Where? - bar, bathhouse, sex club, parks, chat rooms, home, etc. When? - time frames Triggers? - environmental or situational influences
Assess Patient’s Attitudes Is a change needed? o Does the patient see a risk of transmission? o Is this risk serious enough? Is change possible? o Can barriers be overcome? o Have skills to make change?
Assess Readiness for Change Don’t see a need to change See a need, but have barriers Ready to try a behavior change
Case Example: TONY Behaviors from Risk Assessment Doesn’t use condoms with his girlfriend Using condoms sometimes for anal sex with male partners
Case Example: TONY Assess Circumstances Meets partners in clubs Uses condoms unless partner says he is also HIV+ Girlfriend of 3 years is HIV+, doesn’t know about male partners
Case Example: TONY Assess Attitudes Doesn’t want to give HIV to others Thinks bringing up condom use with girlfriend would make her suspicious about others
Case Example: TONY Assess Readiness Syphilis diagnosis has influenced readiness - now sees a need to also use condoms with HIV+ partners Sees a need to use condoms with girlfriend, but has barriers
Skills Practice DEVELOPING AN INTERVENTION Interact! Summarize risk Ask patient to set goal Discuss circumstances, barriers, readiness Ask patient if ideas are realistic and do- able Identify a first step
On-going Prevention at Next Visits Ask patient about progress If patient is meeting the goal: o positive reinforcement o identify next steps o anticipate new problems or changes (Ask “what if.. ?” questions) If patient is not meeting goal: o further assess circumstances, attitudes, readiness o revise steps o consider referrals
Referrals HIV Case Management/ Prevention Case Management Other behavioral interventions o Individual, group, community Partner Counseling & Referral Services (PCRS) Other services: substance use, mental health, social services, family planning
Training for Clinicians Where do I go to learn more about brief risk- reduction interventions? Behavioral & Social Intervention Training Centers of National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers - New York, Denver, Texas, California www.stdhivpreventiontraining.org www.stdhivpreventiontraining.org AIDS Education & Training Centers www.aidsetc.orgwww.aidsetc.org
Choosing an Intervention Which of your patients need….. o Prevention messages/addressing misconceptions? o Tailored behavioral interventions? o Referrals for more intensive interventions and prevention services?
RISK SCREENING STD SCREENING PREVENTION MESSAGES ADDRESSING MISCONCEPTIONS BRIEF BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS REFERRALS PARTNER MANAGEMENT What are your Next Steps?