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The Cell, Central Dogma and Human Genome Project.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell, Central Dogma and Human Genome Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell, Central Dogma and Human Genome Project

2 A Eukaryotic Cell (there is nucleus)

3 Central Dogma

4 Transcription and translation

5 Fundamentals of Nucleic Acids

6 DNA Base Pair & Double Helix

7 Strands come in pairs. Alternating sugar- phosphate backbone A,T,G,C variability in the side groups Nucleotide bonds are hydrogren bonds 3' ATTAGCCCAT 5' 5' TAATCGGGTA 3‘ the string "attagcccat" is bonded to its complement "atgggctaat".

8 From DNA to protein, Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes

9 From Gene Code to Amino Acid: Codon Table


11 I. Protein Molecular Structure a) Protein is a polymer of amino acids. 20 Amino Acids ( Functional Groups) Peptide Bond Formation

12 Human genome project (1990 - 2003) Goal: to determine the complete sequence of the 3 billion DNA subunits (bases), identify all human genes, and make them accessible for further biological study. Ref: (How Perl saved the Human Genome project?) Major Database and Data collection methods: Genbank: ( DNA sequence: shortgun gene sequencing (molecular biology + computation) Protein sequence: ORF finder, theoretical translation, Experimental: Proteolysis +Mass spectrometry Protein structure db: ( x-ray crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance(NMR) spectroscopy Protein structure modeling: Genomewide expression data (RNA): Gene chip (microarray technology) special gene chips: microRNA chip SNP chip Protein-protein interaction (Proteomics): 2D gel, mass spectrometry

13 NCBI (Natl Center Biotech Information) - GenBank EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute) - EMBL NIAS, Japan (National Institute of Agrobiological systems) (genebank, DNA and proteins) KEGG (pathways database) ExPASy - SwissProt and TrEMBL: Database of annotated proteins Database for predicting protein structure using homology modeling Prosite: Database of protein active sites Structure Databases: PDB (Protein Data Bank): http://www. Data base of Protein tertiary structures SCOP: CATH: Primary Biological information databases

14 Tools and Tutorial: BLAST, Structure, PubMed, OMIM, Taxbrowser (Information Engineering)

15 Significance of the Genomics Revolution data driven biology – functional genomics – comparative genomics – systems biology molecular medicine – identification of genetic components of various maladies – diagnosis/prognosis from sequence/expression – gene therapy pharmacogenomics – developing highly targeted drugs – predicting adverse effects or efficacy on individual basis toxicogenomics – elucidating which genes are affected by various chemicals

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