1 Agenda Chapter 7 – Asch & Chapter 3 – ManageFirst Workbook Chapter 7 AschReview for Test 1 Next week
2 Using Standardized Recipes to Determine Standard Portion Cost 3Asch Chapter 7: Controls in Food ProductionOH 3-2
3 Chapter Learning Objectives Understand the need and usage of a production scheduleExplain why a standardized recipe is important for cost control and product consistency.Describe information included in a standardized recipe.Compare “as purchased” and “edible portion” methods in determining the cost of recipe ingredients.Develop a recipe cost card using a standardized recipe.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that these objectives (competencies) drive the information in the chapter and in this session.Ask the following questions, “How important is ‘consistency’ to you when you are personally selecting a restaurant?” “Who is most responsible for ensuring product and service consistency in a restaurant?”
4 Chapter Learning Objectives Understand the need and usage of a standard portion size including: Volume, Count & WeightCalculate standard portion costUnderstand the concept of yield factor/percentComplete a butcher’s yield & cooking loss testCalculate daily & to date food costsUnderstand the concept of potential savingsInstructor’s NotesIndicate that these objectives (competencies) drive the information in the chapter and in this session.Ask the following questions, “How important is ‘consistency’ to you when you are personally selecting a restaurant?” “Who is most responsible for ensuring product and service consistency in a restaurant?”
5 Food Production Schedule What is a production schedule?Who prepares the production schedule?When is it used?What should be included?Example Production SheetWhat is a production schedule? List of items to be preparedWho prepares the production schedule? Manager, ex chefWhen is it used? Every day, every shift, every areaWhat should be included? Date, Day of week, weather, number of customers forecast,Recipe numberRecipe namePopularity indexPortion sizePortion costNumber of servings to be producedNumber of servings preparedNumber of servings left
6 Standardized Recipes Ensure Consistency In Ingredient qualityPreparation methodPortion sizeVolumeCountWeightService methodInstructor’s NotesRemind students that inconsistent food can be one of a restaurant’s greatest problems, and the consistent use of standardized recipes helps to eliminate that problem.Ask students to suggest what information should be listed on a standardized recipe.
7 Standardized Recipes Identify Ingredient details (quality)Ingredient weights and measuresNecessary equipment and toolsVolume (number) of portionsInstructor’s NotesExplain the difference between a recipe’s stated volume (i.e., makes six quarts, yields ten pounds) and the number of portions the recipe will actually produce.
8 Standardized Recipes also Include Preparation timeStorage and preparation informationCooking method(s)Instructor’s NotesAsk why chefs are sometimes hesitant to standardize their personally developed recipes.Explain that few recipes state the total time required to make the recipe because the skill level of food production workers varies greatly.If time permits, ask students to write down a recipe of their own (in standardized format) that they can share.
9 Sample Standardized Recipe Instructor’s NotesAsk students to look for and identify each of the seven items listed on the previous two slides.
10 Standardized Recipes Allow for accurate purchasing Help ensure compliance with “Truth In Menu” lawsAssists in training new employeesMakes it possible to “cost” the recipe accuratelyInstructor’s NotesExplain that guests, especially those with dietary concerns, often want to know about ingredients used in a recipe, and use of standardized recipes can yield this information.Point out that computerization of the recipe costing process is impossible without standardized recipes.
11 Recipe Ingredient Costing Alternatives As Purchased (AP) methodPrice of an item before any trim or waste are consideredExample—unpeeled, whole potatoesEdible Portion (EP) methodPrice of an item after all trim and waste has been taken into accountExample—peeled, cubed potatoesInstructor’s NotesExplain that recipe costing is only possible with standardized recipes.Ask for examples of items typically purchased in AP and EP market forms.
12 AP and EPAs Purchased (AP) refers to products as the restaurant receives them.Edible Portion (EP) refers to products as the guests receive them.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that most food products are delivered to a restaurant in their AP state.Ask students for examples of products purchased in an EP form. Examples: milk, wine and beer, and baked goods such as bread and buns.
13 Comparison of AP and EP Weights Instructor’s NotesAsk if the AP price of an item can ever be lower than its EP price. (Answer: if an item has zero trim loss, AP price can equal EP price, but AP price can never be lower than EP price.)
14 Managers MustDetermine if recipe ingredients are listed in AP or EP formats.Apply the correct costing method to the ingredients.Use the information to price menu items.Periodically re-cost recipe ingredients.Instructor’s NotesExplain to students that the use of specifications will have the effect of reducing variation in the price paid for an item (among various suppliers) because each vendor will be supplying exactly the same item.Explain that changing food suppliers may change the EP cost of some ingredients purchased by the restaurant because of differences in the newly supplied productsYieldPrice
15 EP AmountsBecause many food items shrink when they are cooked, managers must know exactly how much cooking loss to expect.Instructor’s NotesExplain that, even if foods are purchased cleaned and trimmed, water loss in foods is the inevitable result of applying heat (cooking) so there will often be reductions in food volume.Explain that a yield test is a method of calculating the loss related to cooking and trimming, peeling and cleaning.
16 Ways to Estimate Yields Butcher’s testsTo measure loss from deboning, trimming, and portioning meats, fish, and poultryTotal cost approachAbsorb the cost of the entire cost of the meat product in the preparation of the menu item.Cooking loss testsTo measure loss from the actual cooking processConversion chartsTell the expected or average loss of an item from (AP) to (EP)Instructor’s NotesExplain that an AP product’s ultimate yield may vary based upon grade, age, storage techniques, and skill level of the cook preparing the food.
17 Butcher Test Also known as “yield test” Used to determine EP meat costsResults vary, based upon the AP quality of meat purchasedMeasures losses fromFat removalBone removalTrim and packaging removalPortioningInstructor’s NotesExplain that, in some restaurant segments, the increased use of convenience foods has reduced the need for conducting butcher tests.Ask students to identify the types of restaurants that likely still utilize butcher tests.Before moving to the next section, ask students if they have any questions about the information discussed about purchasing.State, “The next section discusses the processes a restaurant uses in receiving the items it ordered.”
18 Creating Recipe Cost Cards Step 1 – Copy the ingredients from the standardized recipe card to the cost card.Step 2 – List the amount of each ingredient used.Step 3 – Indicate the cost of each ingredient as listed on the invoice.Instructor’s NotesPoint out that creating recipe cost cards has seven steps.Explain that for the first step, you must list all ingredients, including spices, in the form they are used in the recipe, i.e., pounds, tablespoons, ounces, cups, and quarts.Ask for examples of items that are purchased in one unit, but used in recipes in another unit. Example: Black pepper is usually purchased by the pound or ounce, but is often added to recipes by the tablespoon or teaspoon.Inform students that conversions must often be made from the cost of an AP unit to the cost of an EP unit
19 Creating Recipe Cost Cards continued Step 4 – Convert the cost of the invoice unit to the cost of the recipe unit.ExampleMilk purchased by the gallon for $2.80Yields eight recipe-ready (EP) pints at $0.35 each. ($2.80 ÷ 8 pints = $0.35 per pint)Instructor’s NotesAssure that students understand that there are eight pints to one gallon.
20 Creating Recipe Cost Cards continued Step 5 – Multiply the recipe unit cost by the amount required in the recipe.ExampleRecipe amount required—3 pintsCost per pint—$0.35Ingredient cost—$1.05 (3 pints x $0.35 per pint = $1.05)Instructor’s NotesExplain that the math skills required in this step are the same as those required for standardizing recipes and for taking physical inventories.
21 Creating Recipe Cost Cards continued Step 6 – Add the cost of all ingredients.Instructor’s NotesExplain that, for some very low cost ingredients, like salt and minor spices, some managers estimate a fixed amount per recipe (i.e., one penny per portion or $0.25 per recipe) rather than listing the actual ingredient cost.
22 Creating Recipe Cost Cards continued Step 7 – Divide the total recipe cost by the number of portions produced.ExampleTotal recipe cost—$145.50Total recipe yield—50 portionsCost per portion—$2.91 ($ ÷ 50 portions = $2.91 per portion)Instructor’s NotesRemind students that recipe cards are used to determine portion costs.Explain that all of the individual portion costs on a combination plate equal the plate cost.Plate costs can include items such as entrée, vegetable, and starch, or even a full three or more course meal.Explain that accurate portion or plate costs are needed to calculate a restaurant’s menu prices.
23 The Major Cost Control Device in Serving Portion Control!Overportioning results in the restaurant’s owners being treated unfairly.Underportioning results in the restaurant’s guests being treated unfairly.Instructor’s NotesExplain that another problem related to portion control is the guest’s perception of consistency (large servings sometimes, but smaller servings another time).Ask students if they have ever ordered a menu item the first time, liked it, and returned to buy it again only to find the portion served the second time was a different size.
24 The Cost of Overportioning Item: Corn Cost = $2.80 per 3 lb boxPortions per BoxPortion Size in OuncesPortion Cost in Cents163.0 oz = the standard$0.175If 143.4 oz$0.20If 133.7 oz$0.215Instructor’s NotesPoint out that small amounts of overportioning can add up quickly.Explain that, with a 3-ounce standard portion size that should cost $0.175 (17.5 cents), overportioning just 0.7 ounces per serving (13 servings example) raises food cost by 23%. ($ $0.175) ÷ $0.175 = 23%.
25 Preportioned Items Some menu items come already portioned. 2 oz hot dogsPrecut steaksRib “slabs”Half-pound frozen hamburger pattiesBananasCarton or bottled beveragesInstructor’s NotesExplain that, when an item is not preportioned, managers must ensure that guests get what they pay for while the restaurant protects its profits. Both of these goals are accomplished through proper portion control.Ask, “Who does the majority of portioning, cooks or servers?” Ask for examples of when servers play a major role in portion control.
26 Items Not Preportioned Items that are not preportioned must be carefully portioned.To control costsTo ensure consistencyTo ensure a positive price-value relationship in each guest’s mindTo avoid running out of a productInstructor’s NotesAsk students to identify some tools used in a kitchen to help in the portioning process.
27 Portion Control Tools Scoops Also known as dishers Used to portion fluid ounces and semisolid productsInstructor’s NotesPoint out that scoops are used for foods like cottage cheese, ice cream, and tuna salad.Explain that these devices are based upon the number of level servings per quart (32 ounces). Therefore, a “Number 10 scoop,” means it will yield ten-3.2 ounce servings (scoops) per quart.Point out that ladles are used for liquids such as soups, sauces, and dressings. Tell students that the capacity of a ladle is usually stamped on the handle.
28 Portion Control Tools continued LadlesUsed to portion liquidsInstructor’s NotesPoint out that ladles are used for liquids such as soups, sauces, and dressings.Tell students that the capacity of a ladle is usually stamped on the handle or that the handle might be color-coded to designate size.
29 Portion Control Tools continued Serving spoonsSlotted—used to separate solids from liquidsSolid—used to serve solids and liquidsInstructor’s NotesPoint out that a slightly rounded serving spoonful is about four ounces of product.
30 Portion Control Dishware RamekinsUsed for small amounts of sauces and salad dressingsIndividual casserolesTypically round or oval oven-proof dishesRange in size from five to twelve ouncesInstructor’s NotesPoint out that ramekins may be made of stainless steel, ceramics, or disposable plastics.Ask students how they have seen ramekins used.Individual casseroles are often used for broiled items because these dishes can tolerate high heat levels.
31 Portion Control Dishware continued CupsTypically hold four to six ouncesBowlsTypically hold six to ten ouncesInstructor’s NotesPoint out a regular “coffee” cup holds a different amount (usually two to three ounces less) than an eight-ounce measuring cup.
32 Portion Scales Are used for items portioned by weight Must be kept very cleanCan be adjusted to subtract the weight of the container holding the productAre designed to weigh items as heavy as thirty- two ouncesInstructor’s NotesAsk students to identify some items that are portioned on scales. Answers will include meats, fish portions, cold cuts, and cheeses.Point out that “tare” weight is the weight of the container holding the item. This tare weight is subtracted to arrive at the item’s actual or net weight.
33 Preportioning Preportioning items prior to the start of a meal period Ensures consistencyReduces errors in portion sizesSpeeds production timesInstructor’s NotesAsk students to describe their experiences at a “Subway” type of sandwich shop to emphasize the importance to line speed of preportioning items such as cold cuts and cheeses.Mention that for some foods, preportioning may not be practical. Examples include soups and other hot or very cold liquid items.
34 Portion Control Training All food production and service employees require portion-control training.Training must be ongoing.Service personnel must be continually reminded of proper portion sizes.Instructor’s NotesExplain that servers sometimes are “pressured” by some guests to increase portions sizes. Servers, anxious to protect or increase their tips, may do so.Ask students, “What can managers do to ensure that servers do not change portion sizes while, at the same time, ensuring high levels of guest satisfaction?”
35 Portion Control Training continued Servers must be very knowledgeable about portion sizes if they are to consistently satisfy their guests.Instructor’s NotesExplain that well-trained servers can note portioning mistakes made in the kitchen that could lead to dissatisfaction among guests.
36 Additional Management Tasks Monitor and follow throughVisually inspect served food items as frequently as possible.Regularly check the sizes of scoops and ladles used for portioning.Ensure proper plate presentation.Portion sizeItem placementGarnishInstructor’s NotesOne of a manager’s most important tasks is to continually monitor food production.Ask students where they would want their managers to be during a “rush” in a restaurant they themselves owned.
37 Portioning Reports Usage reports tell Waste reports tell The number of items issued to the cook’s lineThe number of items sold to guestsThe number of items returned to inventoryWaste reports tellThe items returned by guestsThe reasons for their returnInstructor’s NotesRemind students that waste reports were discussed in the previous chapter.Ensure that students know the differences between these two reports.Ask which of these two reports is most critical to the operation.
38 How Would You Answer the Following Questions? The cost of most AP food products is higher than their EP cost. (True/False)Which of the following is NOT true about recipe cost cards?They help establish menu selling prices.They reduce food production time.There should be one for every menu item.They inform managers about how much it costs to make a single portion of an item.Software programs designed to help foodservice managers create recipe cost cards are readily available. (True/False)Instructor’s NotesAnswersFalseBTrueNote: indicate that the last part of this discussion will provide a review of definitions for the key terms used in the chapter.
39 Key Term ReviewAs purchased (AP) method: used to cost an ingredient at the purchase price prior to considering any trim or wasteButcher test: used to measure the amount of shrinkage that occurs during the trimming of meat productsConversion chart: list of food items showing the expected, or average, shrinkage from AP amount to EP amountCooking loss test: way to measure the amount of product shrinkage during the cooking or roasting processEdible portion (EP) method: used to cost an ingredient after it has been trimmed and waste has been removed so that only the usable portion of the item is consideredInstructor’s NotesAs purchased (AP) method—used to cost an ingredient at the purchase price prior to considering any trim or wasteButcher test—used to measure the amount of shrinkage that occurs during the trimming of meat productsConversion chart—list of food items showing the expected, or average, shrinkage from AP amount to EP amountCooking loss test—way to measure the amount of product shrinkage during the cooking or roasting processEdible portion (EP) method—used to cost an ingredient after it has been trimmed and waste has been removed so that only the usable portion of the item is consideredNote that there are additional key terms for this chapter.
40 Key Term Review Portion size: size of a menu item Recipe cost card: tool used to calculate standard portion cost for a menu itemShrinkage: amount of loss incurred when a product is trimmed and cooked, roasted, or otherwise prepared for serviceStandard portion cost: exact amount that one serving or portion of a food item should cost when prepared according to the item’s standardized recipe that has been pre-costed with current purchase costStandardized recipe: lists the ingredients and quantities needed for a menu item, as well as the methods used to produce it and its portion sizeInstructor’s NotesPortion size—size of a menu itemRecipe cost card—tool used to calculate standard portion cost for a menu itemShrinkage—amount of loss incurred when a product is trimmed and cooked, roasted, or otherwise prepared for serviceStandard portion cost—exact amount that one serving or portion of a food item should cost when prepared according to the item’s standardized recipe that has been pre-costed with current purchase costStandardized recipe—lists the ingredients and quantities needed for a menu item, as well as the methods used to produce it and its portion size
42 Review for Test 1 – Chapters 1-7 Review calculations for food cost:Given inventory & purchasesGiven sales & food cost percentCalculation of cost per personFixed costs vs variable costsReview calculations on an Income statement, costs as a percent of sales