Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Earthquakes Chapter 16. What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy radiates in all.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Earthquakes Chapter 16. What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy radiates in all."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earthquakes Chapter 16

2 What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy radiates in all directions from its source, the focus Energy moves like waves Seismographs record the event

3 Earthquakes and faults Earthquakes are associated with faults Motion along faults can be explained by plate tectonics

4 Elastic rebound Mechanism for EQ’s explained by H. Reid –Rocks on sides of fault are deformed by tectonic forces –Rocks bend and store elastic energy –Frictional resistance holding the rocks together is overcome by tectonic forces

5 Elastic rebound Earthquake mechanism –Slips starts at the weakest point (the focus) occurs –Earthquakes occur as the deformed rock “springs back” to its original shape (elastic rebound)


7 Elastic Rebound Movie in Mapview

8 Reid elastic rebound cartoon

9 Aftershocks The change in stress that follows a mainshock creates smaller earthquakes called aftershocks The aftershocks “illuminate” the that ruptured in the mainshock Red dots show location of aftershocks formed by 3 earthquakes in Missouri and Tennessee in 1811/1812

10 Normal Fault Quake - Nevada Strike Slip Fault Quake - Japan Strike Slip Fault Quake - California



13 San Andreas: An active earthquake zone San Andreas is the most studied fault system in the world Displacement occurs along discrete segments 100 to 200 kilometers long Most segments slip every 100-200 years producing large earthquakes Some portions exhibit slow, gradual displacement known as fault creep

14 Fence offset by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake




18 Seismology Seismometers - instruments that record seismic waves Records the movement of Earth in relation to a stationary mass on a rotating drum or magnetic tape

19 A seismograph designed to record vertical ground motion

20 Motion of a seismograph

21 Types of seismic waves Surface waves –Complex motion, great destruction –High amplitude and low velocity –Longest periods (interval between crests) –Termed long, or L waves

22 Types of seismic waves Body waves –Travel through Earth’s interior –Two types based on mode of travel –Primary (P) waves –Push-pull motion –Travel thru solids, liquids & gases –Secondary (S) waves –Moves at right angles to their direction of travel –Travels only through solids


24 P-Wave Motion

25 S-Wave Motion

26 Locating the source of earthquakes Focus - the place within Earth where earthquake waves originate Epicenter – location on the surface directly above the focus Epicenter is located using the difference in velocities of P and S waves

27 Earthquake focus and epicenter

28 Locating the epicenter of an earthquake Three seismographs needed to locate an epicenter Each station determines the time interval between the arrival of the first P wave and the first S wave at their location A travel-time graph then determines each station’s distance to the epicenter

29 Graph used to find distance to epicenter


31 Locating the epicenter of an earthquake A circle with radius equal to distance to the epicenter is drawn around each station The point where all three circles intersect is the earthquake epicenter

32 Epicenter located using three seismographs

33 Earthquake belts 95% of energy released by earthquakes originates in narrow zones that wind around the Earth These zones mark of edges of tectonic plates

34 Locations of earthquakes from 1980 to 1990

35 Depths of Earthquakes Earthquakes originate at depths ranging from 5 to nearly 700 kilometers Definite patterns exist –Shallow focus occur along oceanic ridges –Deep earthquakes occur in western Pacific east of oceanic trenches

36 Earthquake in subduction zones

37 Measuring the size of earthquakes Two measurements describe the size of an earthquake Intensity – a measure of earthquake shaking at a given location based on amount of damage Magnitude – estimates the amount of energy released by the earthquake

38 Intensity scales Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale was developed using California buildings as its standard Drawback is that destruction may not be true measure of earthquakes actual severity


40 Magnitude scales Richter magnitude - concept introduced by Charles Richter in 1935 Richter scale –Based on amplitude of largest seismic wave recorded –Each unit of Richter magnitude corresponds to 10X increase in wave amplitude and 32X increase in energy


42 Magnitudes scales Moment magnitude was developed because Richter magnitude does not closely estimate the size of very large earthquakes –Derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault and the area of the fault that slips

43 Earthquake destruction Amount of structural damage depends on Intensity and duration of vibrations Nature of the material upon which the structure rests (hard rock good, soft bad) Design of the structure

44 Tsunamis, or seismic sea waves Destructive waves called “tidal waves” Result from “push” of fault block or undersea landslide on water In open ocean height is > 1 meter In shallow coast water wave can be > 30 meters Very destructive

45 Formation of a tsunami


47 Tsunami 1960, Hilo Hawaii

48 Tsunami Model, Japan Earthquake

49 Tsunami Model, Alaska Quake

50 Can earthquakes be predicted Short-range predictions Goal is to provide a warning of the location and magnitude of a large earthquake within a narrow time frame Research has concentrated on monitoring possible precursors – phenomena that precede a forthcoming earthquake such as measuring uplift, subsidence, and strain in the rocks

51 Earthquakes cannot be predicted Short-range predictions Currently, no method exists for making short-range earthquake predictions Long-range forecasts Calculates probability of a certain magnitude earthquake occurring over a given time period



54 End of Chapter 16

Download ppt "Earthquakes Chapter 16. What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy radiates in all."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google