3 Reserved IP addresses ClassRange A10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 B172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 C192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 IP addresses reserved for private use. AddressUse 255.255.255.255 Example: 10.255.255.255 Local broadcast to LAN computers Broadcast to network 10.0.0.0/8 127.0.0.1Loopback address (for self addressing) 0.0.0.0Prohibited 169.254.x.xAutomatic Private IP Addressing Special IP addresses.
4 The ADDing technique Are the following three Class C IP addresses from the same network? 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.50 and 192.168.2.1 IP:110000001010100000000001 192.168.1.1 Mask:11111111 00000000255.255.255.0 Network:11000000101010000000000100000000192.168.1.0/24 IP:11000000101010000000000100110010192.168.1.50 Mask:11111111 00000000255.255.255.0 Network:11000000101010000000000100000000192.168.1.0/24 IP:11000000101010000000001000000001192.168.2.1 Mask:11111111 00000000255.255.255.0 Network:11000000101010000000001000000000192.168.2.0/24 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Network 1: 192.168.1.0/24, i.e network starting at 192.168.1.0 with network mask 255.255.255.0. Network 2: 192.168.2.0/24, i.e network starting at 192.168.2.0 with network mask 255.255.255.0.
5 Subnetting a class C network Suppose the 192.168.1.0/24 network You want to divide that network into two segments You can decide to use the first bit of the fourth octet as dividing point between your network segments. So, your network mask would be: 11111111 11111111 11111111 10000000 And you will have about 2 7 = 128 hosts in each segment. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Segment 1: 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.1.127Segment 2: 192.168.1.128 to 192.168.1.255 How to determine the two segments using the ADDing technique?
6 Subnetting a class C network IP:110000001010100000000001 192.168.1.1 Mask:11111111 10000000255.255.255.128 Network:11000000101010000000000100000000192.168.1.0/25........................ IP:11000000101010000000000101111111192.168.1.127 Mask:11111111 10000000255.255.255.128 Network:11000000101010000000000100000000192.168.1.0/25 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Segment 1: 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.1.127
7 Subnetting a class C network IP:11000000101010000000000110000000192.168.1.128 Mask:11111111 10000000255.255.255.128 Network:11000000101010000000000110000000192.168.1.128/25........................ IP:11000000101010000000000111111110192.168.1.254 Mask:11111111 10000000255.255.255.128 Network:11000000101010000000000110000000192.168.1.128/25 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Segment 2: 192.168.1.128 to 192.168.1.255
8 Questions Consider the 192.168.2.0/24 network. What is the maximum number of hosts in that network? Suppose that the 192.168.2.0/24 network is segmented, and becomes 192.168.2.0/25 What is the maximum number of hosts in in each subnet? Would IP address 192.168.2.1 be in the same subnet as IP address 192.168.2.122? Consider the 192.168.2.0/24 network. You want to segment that network in order to create 4 subnets. What would be the four (4) address ranges?
9 Review Questions 5-8 in Lab 1 2/2 (i.e. in Exercise 3: Command-lines & IP addressing)
11 Basic disk: Primary partitions A basic disk uses traditional disk management techniques Data on basic disks can be accessed by all operating systems A basic disk can contain up to 4 primary partitions Primary partition 1 Primary partition 2 Primary partition 3 Primary partition 4 C:\Part1 D:\Part2 E:\Part3 F:\Part4 Primary partitions A primary partition is a portion of a physical disk that functions as though it were a physically separate disk. You create a primary partition, then you format it with a file system (FAT or NTFS), then assign a drive letter and a label to it. One of the primary partitions must be the system partition, i.e. the partition that contains the files required to start the OS (boot.ini, etc.) the partition marked as the active partition (It’s almost always the logical drive C) The partition that contains the OS files is called the boot partition It’s where the \WINDOWS folder resides The boot partition could be either a primary partition or an extended partition Note: With GPT (GUID partition table) disk-partitioning scheme that is used by the Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) in Itanium-based computers, we can create up to 128 (primary) partitions per disk
12 Basic disk: Extended partition A Basic disk may also contain Up to 3 primary partitions and 1 extended partition that could be divided in multiple logical drives. Primary partition 1 Primary partition 2 Primary partition 3 Extended partition C:\Part1 D:\Part2 E:\Part3 F:\Logical1 G:\Logical2 H:\Logical3 Primary partitions Extended partition A special kind of partition used in order to exceed the 4-partition limit of basic disks. May be divided into several logical drives After you create a logical drive, you format it and assign it a drive letter and a label. May contain the OS files, i.e. the \WINDOWS folder
13 Dynamic disk Created by upgrading a Basic disk using the Disk Management tool Logical representation of the basic disk that can be divided in units called volumes One could virtually create an unlimited number of volumes Volumes are similar to partitions with additional capabilities Volume C: Volume D: Volume E: Logical Disk Manager – LDM partition (1 MB) Etc…. Advantages of Dynamic disks over basic disk: Volumes could be extended/resized* Ability to create fault-tolerant volumes. Could reactivate missing or offline disks Disk settings could be changed without restarting computer. Special partition automatically created to store the configuration of the disk Volume F: Volume G: * Except the system volume and the boot volume. NTFS file system required.
15 Striped volume (RAID 0) Stores data in stripes on 2 to up to 32 physical disks. Same as Spanned volume, but W2003 optimize performance by writing data to all disks at the same time. Data is written in 64 KB blocks across rows in the volume Striped volumes are not fault-tolerant. If a disk in a striped volume fails, the data in the entire volume is lost.
16 RAID-5 volume Fault-tolerant volume that requires a minimum of 3 disks Data is written in 64 KB blocks across rows in the volume Uses Parity; i.e. a calculated value used to reconstruct data after a failure Write speed slower than with a striped volume. Read speed is same. b/c for writing, parity information must be computed, and then written. Actual storage space for data is n-1/n where n = number of disks Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 Disk 5 ParityData ParityData ParityData ParityData Parity
17 Summary Questions 1. On a W2003 system, the boot volume can be extended TF 2. On a W2003 system, the system volume can be extended TF 3. A volume formatted using NTFS could be extended, but a volume formatted using FAT cannot. TF
18 Summary Questions How many partitions can you put on a dynamic disk ? a.1 b.2 c.4 d.none How much free space is needed on a basic disk to convert it to a dynamic disk? a.At least 1 MB b.5 MB c.10 MB How many extended partitions can be on one basic disk?
19 Summary Questions You want to set up two disks so they are mirrored, but there is no option to do this in the Disk Management utility. What is the problem? a.Windows 2003 no longer supports mirroring. b.You are working with basic disks and need to convert them to dynamic disks. c.You must stripe the disk first d.The disks must contain over 2 GB to mirror them. Which of the following is/are true about basic and dynamic disks? a.Dynamic disks can be partitioned, but basic disks cannot. b.Dynamic disks can be set as spanned volumes. c.Basic disks are formatted, but dynamic discs are not
20 Summary Questions You have created a RAID-5 volume that consists of seven 9-GB disks. How much disk space is usable to store files? a.54 GB b.62 GB c.60 GB You are setting up a server for a customer service organization that needs fast access to its data, but that is not as concerned about how fast information is updated on disk. The organization wants fault tolerance for data storage. Which of the following options would you recommend? a.A spanned volume b.A stripped volume c.A RAID-5 volume
21 Summary Questions You are configuring a computer with Microsoft Windows 2003. The computer includes four 12-GB hard disks but does not include any removable storage devices. You will not be running any other operating systems on the computer. You want to implement RAID 5 to ensure fault tolerance, and you want to be able to resize the disk if necessary without having to restart Windows 2003. In addition, a variety of users will be accessing files on the computer, so you want to be able to set folder and file permissions. Which solution should you use? a.Initialize the hard disks with basic storage, create a primary partition and an extended partition, implement RAID 5, and format the partitions with FAT32. b.Initialize the hard disk with basic storage, create RAID-5 volumes, and format the partitions with NTFS. c.Initialize the hard disks with dynamic storage, create RAID-5 volumes, and format the volumes with NTFS. d.Initialize the hard disks with dynamic storage, create a primary partition and an extended partition, and format the partitions with NTFS.
22 Review Questions 1-10 and 13 in Lab 2 2/2 (i.e. in Exercise 2: Understanding W2K3 Disk Management)
24 Shared Folder Permissions’ Rules Multiple Permissions (The Combination Rule) If a user is assigned a permission for a Shared folder and If the use user belongs to a group to which a different permission is assigned, Then the user’s effective permissions are the combination of the user and group permissions Deny overrides Allow If you deny a shared folder permission to a user and If you allow the same permission to a group the user belongs to Then the user will not have that permission. Copying or Moving Shared folders If you copy a Shared folder, the original folder is shared but not the copy If you move a Shared folder, it is no longer shared.
25 NTFS Permissions’ Rules Multiple Permissions NTFS file permissions take priority over NTFS folder permissions A user can always access files for which he/she has permissions using UNC. E.g. \\SRVDC16\Data\file1.txt Denying a permission for a user blocks that permission, even if the permission is granted to a group the user belongs to. Permission Inheritance By default, permissions assigned for the parent folder are inherited at subfolder and file level To prevent automatic inheritance, explicit permissions assignments must be done at subfolder and/or file levels. Copying or Moving Files and Folders When a file/folder is moved within an NTFS partition, it retains its permissions When a file/folder is copied to another NTFS partition, it inherits the permissions & attributes from the destination folder (Golden rule*) When a file/folder is copied to a FAT partition, it loses its NTFS permissions * Golden rule doesn’t apply to encrypted files/folders
29 Summary Questions 1)The Computer Planning Committee at your company is working to project Windows Server 2003 disk capacity needs for the next two years, as part of the computer equipment budgeting process. Because you are part of the committee, they asked you if there is any way to gather statistics on present disk use over a three-month period to help in making projections. How can you obtain the statistics that they want? a) Turn on disk auditing for each user’s account, and compile the audit report b) Set the default disk quota to a low number, and gather statistics based on the resulting reports that users are out of disk space c) Enable disk quotas, and after three months copy the disk quotas statistics into a file (e.g. spreadsheet or word processor file) d) There is no easy way to gather statistics except to ask all employees to calculate the space they use.
30 Summary Questions 2)Which of the following are Dfs models that you can set up in Windows-based networks? a) Standalone b) Transitive c) Domain-based d) All of the above 3)Your assistant is attempting to set up a second Dfs root on a Windows 2000 server, but the New Dfs Root Wizard will not let him proceed. What is the problem? a) He did not reboot the server after creating the first Dfs root b) The first Dfs root must contain at least two Dfs links before a second Dfs root can be set up. c) Only one Dfs root can be created on a Windows 2000 server.
31 Summary Questions 4)The management in your organization wants to limit all employees to 7 MB of disk space, on each volume, which they can use to store files in shared folders and in home folders. What is the best way you can accomplish this? a) Set up a default disk quota of 7 MB on each shared volume. b) Set up a disk quota for each user via the Active Directory. c) Set up a default disk quota of 7 MB for each user account on each volume. 5)Sara and Richard each have a disk quota of 2 MB. Recently Sara has taken ownership of an 800 KB database file previously owned by Richard. How does this action affect their disk quotas? 5)When ownership of a file is transferred, that file is exempt from the disk quota allotment. 6)The disk quotas of Sara and Richard are unchanged. 7)Sara’s disk quota is now 2.8 MB, but Richard/’s stays the same. 8)Sara has 800 KB less space out of the 2 MB quota, and Richard has 800 KB more.
32 Summary Questions 6)The lead research scientist in your company needs to work over the weekend to prepare information for a lecture he is presenting on Monday. He does not know how close he is to reaching his disk quota and is calling you to find out. How can you determine where he stands? a) There is no way to determine where he stands, but you can increase her quota to make sure there is no problem. b) Check the Quota Entries dialog box in the properties of the shared disk volume that he uses. c) Open the Command prompt window and use the Quota command along with his account name to find out.