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Leadership Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour

2 Defining Leadership The use of influence to achieve goals

3 The trait perspective of leadership – The Great Man approach Traits = distinguishing personal characteristics that are generally not mutable (changeable) –Weak but consistent support for a variety of leadership traits Self-confidence Honesty/Integrity EnergyNeed for achievement IntelligenceDominance Emotional stabilityMotivation to lead

4 Ohio State studies of leadership Two key dimensions were related to leadership –Consideration – the extent to which the leader is approachable and shows personal concern for subordinates and –Initiating structure – the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs the group toward goal attainment

5 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Leader motivation –Relationship oriented - high LPC score –Task oriented - low LPC score Situational conditions –Leader-member relations – favourable when there is support, trust, and cooperation –Task structure – favourable when there is high task structure: clear goals, procedures, and objective measures of performance –Position power – favourable when supported by the organization hierarchy

6 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Task structure Position power Effective leader orientation Leader-member relations Favourableness

7 Path-Goal Theory Leader behaviour types 1.Directive behaviour – schedules work, sets performance standards, gives direction 2.Supportive behaviour – friendly, approachable, expresses concern 3.Participative behaviour – uses consultative processes, shares work problems, considers suggestions 4.Achievement oriented – demanding and supportive, seeks continual improvement

8 Path-Goal Theory Subordinate characteristics –Locus of control –Self-confidence - subordinate perception of their abilities – skills and experience Situational characteristics –Task structure– clear and routine versus challenging and ambiguous –Team dynamics - work group norms and influence

9 Participative Leadership Model Purpose: –To motivate – increases enrichment and autonomy –To increase acceptance of the decision – in issues of fairness or change –To create quality – adds more information into the problem solving

10 Participative Model Downsides –Time and energy – involves a slower process and less experienced participants –Lack or receptivity or knowledge – not everyone is interested or skilled enough –Organizational climate or leader attributes – the organization or leader may not be predisposed to use participatory methods

11 Participative Leadership Theory Four key considerations: 1.Quality requirement – can the decision turn out badly; are all options equal in quality (is one option really just as good as any other) 2.Commitment/Acceptance decision - will employees be committed enough to the decision to implement it properly 3.How cohesive is the group – does everyone cooperate or is there conflict among group members or between group and leader 4.Time availability – how efficiently must the decision be made

12 leader participation contingency variables QR Quality Requirement–is the technical quality of this decision important LI Leader information – does the leader have sufficient information to create a high quality decision ST Problem Structure – is the problem well structure CR (AR) Commitment/Acceptance Requirement- is subordinate commitment to the decision important CP (AP) Commitment/Acceptance Probability – if you made the decision yourself, is it reasonably certain that subordinates would be committed to the decision GC Goal Congruence – Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained by solving this problem CO Subordinate Conflict – Is conflict among subordinates likely in the preferred solution SI Subordinate Information – Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision

13 leader participation contingency variables Added considerations: TCTime Constraint – Is there a time constraint that limits your ability to involve subordinates MD Motivation Development – Is it important to maximize the opportunities for subordinate development

14 Participative Leadership Issues: –Not all subordinates are equally skilled or interested –Not all managers are equally skilled or interested –Not all organizational cultures support flexible decision styles

15 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Examines the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers. In-group members versus out-group members based upon compatibility In-group members do extra things for the leader, perform beyond the requirements of the job and the leader in turn gives rewards beyond those allotted to out- group members

16 Transactional Leaders Power is derived through our acceptance of organizational structures and hierarchy Through the ability to reward and punish The leader clears and defines the pathway so that followers know what is expected Takes into consideration followers needs

17 Transformational leaders Influence comes from follower acceptance of values and vision which guide all decisions and behaviours Transformational Leaders: –Intellectually stimulate followers –Give individualized consideration –Are charismatic

18 Neutralizers of leadership People orientedTask oriented leadership leadership -Knowledgeable, experienced subordinates x -Subordinates with high need for independence x x -”Professional” subordinates x x -Subordinates indifferent to organizational rewards x x -Subordinates doing routine or standardized work x -Task has built in feedback x -Task is intrinsically satisfying x -Organization is highly formalized (written rules) x -Work group is cohesive x x -Rewards cannot be affected by the supervisor x x -Large distance between supervisor and subordinate x x

19 What are the neutralizers/substitutes Julian is an extremely experienced sales person of sophisticated electronic equipment. He has a M.Sc. in electrical engineering and is on the road 11 months of the year. He really enjoys his job and likes the commissions he receives.

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