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What Do Sociologists Do? Chapter 2
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-2 What Is a Valid Sociological Topic? Any kind of human behaviour & social interaction Macro & micro level analyses The Difference Between “Common Sense” & Sociological Research Testing vs. assuming or guessing
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-3 How Not to Do Research Choose a biased sample Ask biased questions List biased choices Discard undesirable results
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-4 Six Research Methods Surveys Participant Observation Qualitative Interviews Secondary Analysis Documents Unobtrusive Measures
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-5 Surveys Samples Population Random Samples Strategies for Asking Questions Questionnaires & interviews: Self-administered Structured interviews Closed-ended questions Establishing rapport
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-6 Participant Observation (Fieldwork) Participating in the research setting Observation & recording The problem of “generalizability” vs. rich specific description
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-7 Qualitative Interviews ‘Structured conversation’ Interview schedule Feminist perspectives Highly descriptive analysis, but not always viewed as objective by more conventional researchers
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-8 Secondary Analysis Analyze data already collected by others Data Liberation Initiative Excellent source of information, but one can not be sure of how systematically the original data were gathered
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-9 Documents Examine books, newspapers, diaries, bank records, police reports, household accounts, immigration files, etc. Usually best to utilize multiple sources or types of sources Access to source material can pose a problem
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-10 Unobtrusive Methods Subjects do not know they are being or the things they leave behind will be studied Trash Graffiti Graveyards
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-11 Deciding Which Method to Use Quantitative Research Methods Measurement, numbers, statistics Structured questionnaires or surveys Qualitative Research Methods Observation, description, & interpretation Participant observation or qualitative interviews
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-12 Deciding Which Method to Use
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-13 A Research Model: Eight Basic Steps 1. Selecting a Topic 2. Defining the Problem 3. Reviewing the Literature 4. Formulating a Hypothesis or Research Question Hypothesis Variables Operational definitions
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-14 A Research Model: Eight Basic Steps (continued) 5. Choosing a Research Method 6. Collecting the Data 1. Validity 2. Reliability 7. Analyzing the Results 8. Sharing the Results
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-15 The Research Model
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-16 Ethics in Sociological Research Three Cases The Brajuha Research (1986) Arson & an ethical double bind The Scarce Research (1991) Animal Liberation Front & confidentiality The Humphreys Research (1970, 1971, 1975) Tearoom Trade & sociological snooping
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2-17 How Research & Theory Work Together Interdependent Theory stimulates research Research stimulates the development of theory
How Sociologists Do Research?
Extended Project Research Skills 1 st Feb Aims of this session Developing a clear focus of what you are trying to achieve in your Extended Project.
Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e
Sociology: Research Methods. A Research Model 1. Selecting a Topic 2. Defining a Problem 3. Reviewing the Literature 4. Formulating a Hypothesis.
Chapter 3 Doing Sociological Research 1. Sociology & the Scientific Method The research process: 1.Developing a research question 2.Creating a research.
Collecting Quantitative Data
Chapter 10 Collecting Quantitative Data. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES Establishing Procedures to Collect Survey Data Recording Survey Data Establishing the Reliability.
Introduction to Qualitative Research
Sociological Research Chapter Two. Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Outline Why is Sociological Research Necessary? The Sociological.
Robert Wonser Introduction to Sociology
Choosing Your Primary Research Method What do you need to find out that your literature did not provide?
Chapter 33 Conducting Marketing Research. The Marketing Research Process 1. Define the Problem 2. Obtaining Data 3. Analyze Data 4. Rec. Solutions 5.
Chapter 3 Researching the Social World Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Research Methods Mr. Young Sociology
Sociological Research. 1. Why is sociological research so important? It is how sociologists obtain their knowledge of human behaviour It allows sociologists.
Research Methods Irving Goffman People play parts/ roles
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Quantitative Deductive: transforms general theory into hypothesis suitable for testing Deductive: transforms general.
Data Collection Methods
Conducting Research: The Scientific Methods Hyde, A. (2007). Adapted from Henlsin, J. (2005) Sociology: A Down to Earth Approach 7/e. New York: Allyn &
Unobtrusive Research Studying social life without affecting the it in the process.
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