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1 Web Server Administration Chapter 3 Installing the Server.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Web Server Administration Chapter 3 Installing the Server."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Web Server Administration Chapter 3 Installing the Server

2 2 Overview Prepare the server for system installation Understand the installation process Windows Server 2003, and Red Hat Linux 8 Examine basic Linux commands Configure TCP/IP

3 3 Prepare the Server for Installation A typical installation is from CD For Windows 2000, you can boot from a floppy for network installation For Linux, you can install from the network or even using FTP Production systems use a single-boot system meaning only one OS is on a computer You can put all described OSs on a single computer which is a multi-boot

4 4 Prepare the Server for Installation Decide on single or multi-boot system Installation method Hardware check and identifying devices Computer name – must be unique to the LAN Licensing the SW Selecting the file system

5 5 Checking Hardware Compatibility Typically you have fewer problems if you are using hardware designed for a server from major manufacturers IDE drives are always compatible Make sure that you have the latest drivers for SCSI and RAID controllers With video adapters and NICs, it is best to use ones from major vendors

6 6 Checking Hardware Compatibility You can have problems if you Put a system together yourself with the latest or off-brand NICs, video adapters, and RAID controllers Try to upgrade an OS on old servers because they sometimes have specialized hardware that is not supported anymore For Windows OSs For Red Hat Linux

7 7 System Documentation Need compatibility information Hardware information Server manufacturer, including model information Processor type and speed Amount of RAM Drive interface – RAID, SCSI, IDE Hard disk – size, manufacturer, and model NIC manufacturer and model

8 8 System Documentation System information Partition information – number and sizes OS version installed Latest software patches Extra drivers needed URLs for latest drivers

9 9 System Documentation Steps for installation including options chosen Keep documentation, CDs, drivers in a binder Know support details Who to call Contract phone number Type of support contract Expiration of contract

10 10 The Installation Process- Partitioning the Hard Disk A partition is a logical division of the hard disk A system boots from the primary partition You can create an extended partition It is best to isolate the operating system from applications If the application partition fills and the operating system is on the same partition, the OS stops For latest hardware supports For Windows OSs For Red Hat Linux

11 11 OS Boot Systems Every OS has a boot loader, which starts the booting process The sector containing the BL called Master Boot Record Comparison Microsoft BL recognizes Windows 2000, 2003 – No Linux In MS, the OS changes the MBR as they wish without user control over the BL Linux MBR recognizes Linux as well as Windows OS Booting sequence is determined in the BIOS (firmware on the ROM chip that contain computer’s startup instructions) Two common BL programs used with Linux distros are GRUB and LILO; GRUB is more common. It is preferred to install Linux first!

12 12 OS Boot Systems GRUB boot process The BIOS finds a bootable device (hard disk) and moves control to the master boot record (MBR, the first 512 bytes of the hard disk).BIOSmaster boot record The MBR contains GRUB. GRUB receives control, and displays to the user the GRUB boot menu. GRUB loads the user-selected (or default) kernel into memory and passes control on to the kernel.kernel

13 13 The Installation Process Six partitions are used for Linux by default / (root partition) swap (used for virtual memory) /boot (boot files – small) /usr (shared files and programs) /home (user files and programs) /var (Web site, FTP, log files) Just / and swap are required

14 14 Managing Multiple Operating Systems on a Single Computer Useful for development purposes Best to start with unpartitioned hard disk Create one partition for each Windows OS Allow Linux to create default partitions Install Windows first, then Linux Linux installation then produces a menu to select Windows

15 15 The Installation Process- Naming Computers Identify a unique computer on the network In Linux, the hostname can exist on more than computer, it only uses IP addresses for communication

16 16 The Installation Process- Licensing Describes how the software can be used For Windows 2000, Microsoft assumes that you have the correct number of client access licenses For Windows Server 2003, each installation must be activated by Microsoft Linux is basically free but there may be a cost for packaging, support, and extras Based on the GNU general public license Red Hat has personal, professional, and Advanced Server options

17 17 The Installation Process- Selecting a File System A file system determines how files are stored on a hard disk File systems may use a storage device or they may be virtual and exist only as an access method for virtual data or for data over a network implemented for the storage, hierarchical organization, manipulation, navigation, access, and retrieval Examples of disk file systems include FAT, NTFS, HFS, ext2, etc. Windows has two file systems File system aspects How to access sectors on the hard drive How to create and remove files and directories FAT is based on the original DOS file system and has no security – boot able from the floppy NTFS has security features which are critical for a server Only designated users can access some files The default user file system in Red Hat Linux 8 is ext3, which offers some performance improvements over ext2

18 18 Windows Server 2003 Installation The procedures for installing Web, Standard, and Enterprise editions are the same Installation is simpler than previous versions of Windows Only essential information such as computer name, licensing, password, IP address, and domain membership are requested

19 19 Linux 8 Installation As is true with Windows, you can generally accept the defaults Remember to select Server as the Installation Type This gives you a list of packages that are appropriate for a server environment Remember to select No firewall This makes it easier to configure and test your own firewall (Chapter 10)

20 20 Configuring TCP/IP in Windows To determine TCP/IP configuration, type ipconfig at a command prompt

21 21 Configuring TCP/IP in Linux To determine TCP/IP configuration, type ifconfig at a shell prompt The IP address is on the third line

22 22 To Change the IP Address in Linux In System Settings, click Network Click the Edit button Now you can change the IP address Click OK, then Apply, and Close to save the changes

23 23 Summary Windows and Linux installations share the task of creating partitions The same computer can have multiple operating systems Windows server operating systems are licensed based on the edition and the number of users Linux licensing is based on the GNU general public license

24 24 Summary Microsoft and Linux have improved their ability to recognize devices There are many useful commands when using the Linux shell prompt

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