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1 Asymmetric Asynchronous Distributed Education (1) A. Frank, T. Sharon.

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1 1 Asymmetric Asynchronous Distributed Education (1) A. Frank, T. Sharon

2 2 Independent Learning Frees students from having to be in a particular place at a particular time. Students are provided a variety of materials in different formats. Contact between the individual student and the instructor is achieved by one or a combination of the following technologies: telephone, voice- mail, computer conferencing, electronic mail, fax, and regular mail.

3 3 Characteristics (1) Technologies are easy to use. Individuals use these technologies when and where they want. An individual can control the pace of learning, to some degree. Promotes reflection before response. Individuals can revisit content as frequently as they want.

4 4 Characteristics (2) Individuals study independently, following the detailed guidelines in the syllabus. Course materials are used over a period of several years. Generally they are the result of a structured development process that involves instructional designers, content experts, and media specialists; not specific to a particular instructor.

5 5 Faculty Role Instructor structures and facilitates the learning experience, but shares control of the learning process with the student to a great extent. Must become familiar with the content in the print and other materials prior to the beginning of the semester to develop the detailed syllabus and course plan.

6 6 Opportunities for Interaction Instructors provide information in the syllabus about how and when students can contact them. There is typically wide variation in the amount of student-initiated communication with the instructor, and the facilitators. Instructors provide detailed comments on students' written assignments.

7 7 Various Services Needed Significant administrative and support structure is crucial to cater to both the students and the instructors. Includes a system for proctoring exams that retains some measure of flexibility for students but meets institutional needs for exam security.

8 8 Asymmetric-Asynchronous Technologies 1.Correspondence study –Print-based –Audio-based –Video-based 2.Computer-Based Training (CBT) 3.Web-Based Training (WBT)

9 9 1. Correspondence Study At first, Correspondence courses using the postal system with minimal student support. Later, Correspondence courses with continuing access to a tutor by telephone. Delivery media: –Printed material –Audiotape –Videotape –Audio CD

10 10 An Ad For Correspondence Study "Allied Commissioners' Courses; be a detective, send for a one-volume correspondence course. No tests, no instructors, no salesmen will call. Free handcuffs and badge included as a special bonus if you act now." Good Behavior. by Donald Westlake

11 11 Print-based Correspondence Study Normally, learning materials (textbook, study guide) are delivered by mail. Original form of distance education -- dates from mid-1800s.

12 12 Print Text and graphics in hard copy (paper). The most widely used media. Print is almost always used with the other technologies. Increasingly, print is converted into and out of a digital format.

13 13 Types of Print Materials Textbooks Study guides Workbooks Course syllabus Case studies

14 14 Advantages of Print Spontaneous - most people read Easy to use - non-threatening Portable - can be used anywhere Learner-paced - time-effective Instructionally transparent Easily reviewed and referenced Easily edited and revised Cost-effective

15 15 Limitations of Print Dependent on reading skills Self-directed Limited view of reality Passive - motion cannot be shown Limited interactivity Tarnished reputation

16 16 A/V-based Correspondence Study Learning materials usually include textbook and workbook, plus audiotape or videotape. Pre-produced or recorded from live. Viewed individually at home, in library or laboratory.

17 17 Advantages of both A/V-Tapes Similar to print-based with visual and/or audio component Often supplements print materials Learner-paced Simple, low-tech and highly reliable Cost-effective Serves well learners in remote locations

18 18 Limitations of both A/V-Tapes One mode of learning only No feedback Lack of instructor Limited interactivity Difficult revisions

19 19 Audiotape A storage medium for audio with playback capabilities using a standard cassette.

20 20 Advantages of Audiotape Accurate recording of real time audio Widely available Very easy to use Most reliable Easy to transport

21 21 Limitations of Audiotape Only audio; no visuals. Need to have a player to hear the tape. Can be tedious to listen, especially if the production values are poor.

22 22 Videotape A storage medium for video and audio with playback capabilities. The most common format is VHS.

23 23 Advantages of Videotape Accurate recording of real time activity including audio and video. Players and recorder readily available. Usually reliable Widely available standard, VHS.

24 24 Limitations of Videotape Graphics require special preparation. Inability to ask questions. Productions, high quality, can be expensive. Supporting printed materials need to be developed.

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