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Hubble images a part of the Universe

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Presentation on theme: "Hubble images a part of the Universe"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hubble images a part of the Universe

2 “In the beginning…” How did this all start? When did it start?
Has it always been this way? How is it changing? What does it all mean?

3 A Quest for Answers Observations of planets, stars, galaxies
Analysis of light from stars and galaxies Thinking about these observations Posing an hypothesis Testing the hypothesis Evidence/tests either support or refute hypothesis Let’s start with the observational evidence

4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Visible Light Range

5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

6 Chemistry from Spectra
Emission Spectra

7 Chemistry from Spectra
Absorption Spectra

8 Analyzing Stellar Spectra
Chemistry of Stars Predominantly Hydrogen (H) Second most common – Helium (He) Other elements in minor quantities

9 Analyzing Stellar Spectra
Anomalies in positions of absorption bands Normal Spectrum

10 Analyzing Stellar Spectra
Anomalies in positions of absorption bands “Shifted” Spectrum

11 Comparison of Normal and Shifted Spectra
Normal Spectrum Shifted Spectrum

12 What could cause shifted spectra?

13 Animation

14 Doppler Effect Waves emitted from a moving source are shifted depending on direction of motion. Sources moving toward observer show shift toward shorter wavelengths (i.e., toward blue end of spectrum) Wavelength is compressed by motion of source. Referred to as “BLUE SHIFT”

15 Doppler Effect Waves emitted from a moving source are shifted depending on direction of motion. Sources moving AWAY from observer show shift toward longer wavelengths (i.e., toward red end of spectrum) Wavelength is stretched by motion of source. Referred to as “RED SHIFT”

16 Hubble’s Law Nearly all galaxies in the Universe display RED SHIFT
The amount of RED SHIFT is related to the relative distance to the galaxy. FARTHER galaxies show GREATER RED SHIFT

17 Normal Spectrum Shifted Spectrum
Example of Red Shift Normal Spectrum Shifted Spectrum

18 Hubble’s Law – What does it mean?
Is the Earth the center of the Universe after all and everything is moving away from us? Does it depend on frame of reference? Would Hubble’s Law apply if we looked at the Universe from another location? Why is everything moving away?

19 Hubble’s Observation/ Hubble’s Insight
All galaxies appear to be moving away from the center of the Universe because the Universe is expanding. The existence of RED SHIFT and the pattern that it shows (greater shift for farther galaxies) is consistent with a pattern produced by an explosion – THE BIG BANG!!

20 The Big Bang Currently the best theory to explain the origin of the Universe Supported by multiple lines of evidence

21 What was the Big Bang? Prior to the Big Bang – there was no Universe
A single super-massive object exploded Explosion creates Universe Matter, space and time are created Explosion was approximately 15 billion years ago

22 The Big Bang seconds generates space & time, as well as all the matter & energy universe will ever hold For small fraction of a sec., the universe is an infinitely dense, hot fireball

23 The Universe Takes Shape -- 10-6 sec.
universe continues to expand → less dense & cooler. now basic forces in nature become distinct: Gravity & “strong force” (holds nuclei of atoms together), followed by the weak & electromagnetic forces. By end of 1st second, universe consists of particles & energy -- smash together → form protons & neutrons.

24 Formation of Basic Elements -- 3 sec.
nuclei of simple elements hydrogen, helium and lithium form (will be another 300,000 yrs before electrons are captured into orbits around these nuclei to form stable atoms).

25 The Radiation Era -- 10,000 years
most of the energy left from the “fireball” is in the form of radiation -- different wavelengths of light, X rays, radio waves & ultraviolet rays

26 Birth of Stars & Galaxies -- 300 my after BB
(still ~ 12 to 15 by before the present). pockets of gas become more and more dense as a result of gravitational attraction. Stars ignite within these pockets groups of stars become the earliest galaxies.

27 Birth of the Sun -- 5 Billion Years Before Present (BP)
Sun forms w/in cloud of gas in spiral arm of Milky Way Galaxy. vast disk of gas & debris swirls around new star → gives birth to planets, moons, & asteroids .



30 Evidence in support of Big Bang Theory
Hubble’s Law and pattern of red shift Cosmic Background Radiation Mathematical models Particle physics theory

31 New Insights into the Big Bang
Recent mapping of microwave and temperature variations suggest that the Universe may be flat – not spherical! Implications?

32 What about life elsewhere in the Universe and How Big is the Universe?

33 Spiral Galaxy

34 Stars and Planets Each galaxy has about 100 billion stars
There are billions of galaxies! Even if only 1% of stars had planets, And even if only 1% of those planets were like Earth, There would still be hundreds of millions of planets that could have life on them!

35 How far are the stars? How big is the Universe?
We can measure distances to stars by two methods One method – parallax is only good for the very nearest stars The other method – comparison of magnitudes is more complex, but it can be used for even the farthest stars and galaxies.

36 Parallax Classroom demonstration of parallax
Knowing one distance and one angle, we can calculate distance to star using trigonometry

37 Apparent vs. Actual Stellar Magnitude (brightness)
Compare how bright the star looks to how bright it would look at a known distance You must first know actual magnitude (brightness)

38 How do we know actual magnitude?
Cepheid variable stars – absolute magnitude is directly related to period of pulsation Supernova – fixed magnitude Spectral analysis gives composition, which is related to size, which is related to brightness

39 How close is our nearest neighbor?
Proxima centauri is 4.27 light years from Earth

40 What is a light year? The distance that light will travel in one year.
Since light travels at 186,000 miles per second, A light year is approximately 6 trillion miles

41 Implications? Distances are enormous!!
For some stars, it has taken the light billions of years to reach Earth In some cases, this means that the star isn’t even there anymore! We see the light that left long ago, therefore…

42 Looking at the night sky is literally looking into the past!!

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