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Chapter 17: Foreign Policy And National Defense

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1 Chapter 17: Foreign Policy And National Defense
Whytne Kingsley Luke Reinke Rachel Pregont

2 Section 1: Foreign Affairs and National Security
Foreign policy includes all the stands and actions a nation takes in its relationships with other nations. The State Department carries out the President’s diplomatic policies. The armed forces provide the nation’s defense, but are under civilian control of the President.

3 Isolationism to Internationalism
Domestic Affairs: all matters not directly connected to the realm of foreign affairs. Foreign Affairs: a nation’s relationships with other countries. Isolationism: a purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world. The past 60 years have been marked by a profound change in the place of the U.S. in world affairs. Wars and other political upheavals abroad have an impact on the U.S. and on the daily lives of the American people. Economic conditions have a direct effect on our country. The American economy has become part of a truly global economy. Drug cartels remain in Latin America and in Southeast Asia There are emerging dangers of chemical and biological weapons

4 Foreign Policy Defined and the State Department
Foreign Policy: a group of policies made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries; everything a nation’s government says and does in world affairs. The President is both the nations chief diplomat and the commander of the armed forces. The President bears the responsibility for both the making and the conduct of foreign policy. Headed by Secretary of State, also known as the President’s right arm in foreign policy. The Secretary of State and Department of State are people the President looks to for advice.

5 Organization & Components
Secretary of State The Secretary of State ranks first among the members of the President’s Cabinet. The Dept. of Foreign Affairs had first been created in 1781 under the articles of Confederation. The first woman to hold the post, Madeleine Albright, was appointed by former President Clinton in 1997. Colin Powell was the first African American appointed by George W. Bush. Organization & Components Some of the agencies, such as the Bureau of African Affairs and the Bureau of Near East Affairs, deal with matters involving particular regions of the world. Most bureaus are headed by assistant secretaries and include several offices.

6 The Foreign Service Ambassadors
Right of Legation: the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives. About 6,000 men and women now represent the U.S. abroad as members of the Foreign Service. The Second Continental Congress named the nation’s first foreign services officer in 1778. Ambassadors Ambassador: an official representative of the United States appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy. American embassies are found in more then 180 countries around the world. President Truman named the first woman was ambassador to Denmark in 1949.

7 Special Diplomats Passports
These are the people whom the Presidents name to certain other top diplomatic posts and they also carry the rank of ambassador. The President also give the personal rank of ambassador to those diplomats who take on special assignments. Passports A passport is a certificate issued by a government to its citizens who travel or live abroad. The State Department’s Office of Passport Services issues some 8 million passports to American’s each year. Diplomatic Immunity: when an ambassador is not subject to the laws of the state in which they are accredited.

8 The Defense Department
Congress established the Department of Defense in the National Security Act of 1947. The founders of the constitution understood the importance of the nation’s defense. The principal of civilian control has always been a major factor in the making of defense policy. The Department of Defense if headed by the Secretary of Defense Two Major Responsibilities- President’s chief advisor in carrying out defense policy and the operating head of the Defense Department. There are 5 members of the Joint Chief of Staff: Chairman of Joint Chiefs, the Army Chief, Chief of Navel Operations, Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Air Force Chief of Staff.

9 The Military Departments
3 military departments: Army, Navy, and Air Force All operate within a verified structure Army is the largest of the armed services and oldest, established in 1775. Must be prepared to defeat any attacks on the U.S., take action to protect American Interests, organize, equip, and train the armed forces. The regular Army is the nations standing Army, now 410,000 men and 70,000 women prepared to fight. The U.S. Navy was formed in 1775 to protect the sea. The Chief of Navel operations is the Navy’s highest ranking officer. 385 officers and 50,000 men and women are serving The Marines are a combat ready land forces for the Navy. The Air Force was formed in 1947 to defend in the air, on the ground, and other related targets.

10 Section 2: Other Foreign and Defense Agencies
Besides the Departments of State and Defense, several other government agencies are closely involved with foreign policy. These agencies oversee such tasks as gathering and analyzing intelligence information, supervising the draft, exploring space, and strengthening homeland security.

11 Department of Homeland Security
The CIA Central Intelligence Agency is a key part of the foreign policy establishment, established by Congress in 1987. The CIA has 3 major tasks: coordinate the info-gathering activities of all states, analyze and evaluate all data collected, and brief the President and National Security. Espionage: spying Department of Homeland Security Terrorism: the use of violence to intimidate a government or society. Basic Responsibilities: border and transportation security, infrastructure protection, emergency preparedness and response, intelligence, and all types of defense. NASA Only 40 years old, founded in 1957 Armstrong and Aldwin were the first Americans on the moon on July 20, 1969.

12 Section 3: American Foreign Policy Overview
A knowledge of the history of American foreign policy is essential to understanding foreign policy issues today. Over time, the United States changed from an isolationist nation to a world power. Although the United States is the only superpower today, the world remains a dangerous place.

13 Foreign Policy From Independence Through WWI
The Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny shaped American foreign policy through WWI. The nation expanded and became a colonial power during the time of WWI.

14 WWI and the Return of Isolationism
For more than 20 years after WWI an isolationist United States remained aloof protection by its two oceans. The United States were force out of Isolationism after the German submarines campaigned against American shipping in the North Atlantic.

15 WWII Americans historical commitment to isolationism was finally ended by WWII. The two world wars ended Americans traditional policy of isolationism and led to a policy of internationalism

16 Two New Principles The nations foreign policy remains what is always has been: The protection of the security of the United States. Building a network of regional security alliances in another way that the United States has taken another path of security. Victory in WWII made the United States one of the two world superpowers, and led to the policies of collective security and deterrence

17 Resisting Soviet Aggression
During the time of the cold was the US followed the policy of containment to resist the Soviet aggression The Soviets tried to force Germany to withdrawal from was Berlin. The US mounted a massive airlift to keep the city alive until the blockade was lifted. The Korean War was the fist time in history that armed forces of several nations fought under an international flag against aggression. In 1962 during the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba to prevent the delivery of any more missiles cause the Soviets to back down. The Truman Doctrine became part of a broader American plan for dealing with the Soviets.

18 Détente and the return to Containment
After the United States withdrew from Vietnam the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente, the attempt to improve relations with the soviet Union and separately with china. Détente is to improve relations with the soviet Union.

19 Section 4: Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances
The United States works with other nations to keep the peace and to ensure political stability around the world. American foreign aid strengthens the economies and security of nations important to the United States.

20 Foreign Aid Foreign Aid: economic and military aid to other countries.
Began with the Land-Lease program in the 1940s Sent more then $500 billion in aid to more then 100 countries in the world Marshall Plan: $12.5 billion into 16 European nations between 1948 and 1952 Military assistance has become a large part of aid Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America are now the largest receivers of aid Most aid money is used to buy American goods and services Agency for International Development (AID) administers economic aid while the military aid is handled by the Defense Department

21 Security Alliances & NATO
Regional Security Alliances: treaties in which the U.S. and other countries involved have agreed to take collective action to meet aggression in a particular part of the world. North Atlantic Treaty signed in 1949 created NATO NATO was formed to promote the collective defense of Western Europe, particularly against the Soviet Union Each of the countries (United States, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, United Kingdom, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Turkey, Greece) agreed that “an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all” Defense includes military intervention in conflicts that might destabilize Europe In mid-2003 NATO took command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. The ISAF has also played a major role in rebuilding the war torn country of Afghanistan.

22 Other Alliances Rio Pact, or Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance was signed in 1947 uniting the U.S., Canada, and 32 other Latin American countries. ANZUS Pact of 1951 uniting Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. Japanese Pact of 1951: a peace treaty signed after WWII Philippines Pact of 1951 Korean Pact of 1953 Taiwan Pact of 1954

23 The United Nations The UN was formed at the United Nations Conference on International Organization The U.S. was the first to ratify the UN Charter on July 24, 1945. Purposes of the UN: the maintenance of international peace and security, the development of friendly relations between and among all nations, and the promotion of justice and cooperation in the solution of international problems. Currently has 191 members Six “Principal Organs”: General Assembly, Security Council, Trusteeship Council, Economic and Social Council, International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. UN Security Council: a 15-member panel which bears the UN’s major responsibility for keeping international peace.

24 Other Important UN Bodies
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) WHO ILO IMF World Bank IFAD FAO UNIDO ICAO IMO ITU UPU WIPO WMO UNESCO Trusteeship Council: The UN Charter requires each member to promote the well-being of the peoples of all “non-self-governing territories” as “sacred trust.” International Court of Justice: UN’s judicial department Secretariat: civil service branch of the UN

25 Chapter 17 Test: Answer the 20 questions (5 per slide) and the answers will appear on the slide after questions Good Luck!

26 1. The United States began to emerge as a world power after
A. World War II. B. Spanish-American War. C. Revolutionary War. D. World War I. 2. The Framers included civilian control in the Constitution to A. protect free government from the inherent threat of military power. B. reconfirm that the government was established and run by the American people. C. prevent civilians from being forced to quarter troops. D. ensure that the President was not a member of the military. 3. Tools of U.S. foreign policy include alliances, economic and military aid to other nations, and A. taxation. B. UN membership. C. domestic affairs. D. gender discrimination. 4. What is necessary for the draft to be reactivated? A. The President must re-enact conscription. B. Congress must renew the President's power to order the draft. C. The Joint Chiefs of Staff must agree that additional manpower is required. D. The Department of Defense must formally propose to the President that national compulsory military service be reinstated. 5. NATO is a regional security alliance that was formed to promote the defense of A. Western Europe. B. Middle East. C. Philippines. D. Latin America.

27 6. Which of the following leaders deserves much of the credit for the end of the cold war? A. Mikhail Gorbachev B. Bill Clinton C. Jimmy Carter D. Boris Yeltsin 7. The international organization that works to maintain international peace and security is the A. League of Nations. B. United Nations. C. World Peace Organization. D. State Department. 8. The United States has endeavored to ensure collective security by A. changing its foreign policy to reflect its isolated stance. B. decreasing the amount it spends on foreign aid. C. shutting down U.S. military bases in Europe and Asia. D. setting up a network of regional alliances. 9. The spread of communism in Eastern Europe led to the A. establishment of the United Nations. B. Truman Doctrine. C. return to isolationism by the United States. D. Monroe Doctrine. 10. United States foreign policy in Central and South America was largely shaped by A. Seward's Folly. B. the Monroe Doctrine. C. Open Door Policy. D. Manifest Destiny.

28 11. In order to visit a foreign country, a traveler is usually required to possess A. a passport. B. diplomatic immunity. C. a social security card. D. a visa from the American consulate. 12. A period of détente occurred A. after the United States won World War II. B. during the 1800s. C. during the 1940s. D. as the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War. 13. The arrest of an ambassador would be considered a violation of A. foreign policy. B. diplomatic immunity. C. the principle of civilian control. D. espionage. 14. Making America and its allies strong militarily in order to discourage attack is called A. prevention. B. discouragement. C. deterrence. D. aggression. 15. When Benjamin Franklin became America's minister to France he was exercising A. détente. B. the right of legation. C. domestic policy. D. senatorial courtesy.

29 16. What military conflict was the first in history to have armed forces of several nations fighting under an international flag against aggression? A. World War II B. the Vietnam War C. the Cold War D. the Korean War 17. Which of the following plays a key role in creating U.S. military policy? A. the Central Intelligence Agency B. the Joint Chiefs of Staff C. the Secretary of State D. ambassadors and other diplomats 18. After World War II, the United States A. moved from an international role to an isolationist role. B. moved from creating security alliances to joining political alliances. C. moved from an isolationist role to an international role. D. formed the League of Nations. 19. All of the following are major tasks of the Central Intelligence Agency EXCEPT A. maintenance of domestic intelligence. B. analysis and evaluation of data collected in the areas of foreign affairs and national defense. C. coordination of information-gathering activities of agencies involved in foreign affairs. D. apprising the President and National Security Council of all intelligence gathered. 20. Which of the following lists the events in correct chronological order? A. Cuban Missile Crisis, Korean War, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War B. Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War C. Vietnam War, Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Persian Gulf War D. Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Persian Gulf War, Vietnam War

30 Answers 1. World War II. 2. protect free government from the inherent threat of military power. 3. UN membership. 4. Congress must renew the President's power to order the draft. 5. Western Europe. 6. Mikhail Gorbachev 7. United Nations. 8. setting up a network of regional alliances. 9. Truman Doctrine. 10. the Monroe Doctrine. 11. a passport. 12. as the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War. 13. diplomatic immunity. 14. deterrence. 15. the right of legation. 16. the Korean War 17. the Joint Chiefs of Staff 18. moved from an isolationist role to an international role. 19. maintenance of domestic intelligence. 20. Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War

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