Presentation on theme: "IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies"— Presentation transcript:
1 IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies Chapter5IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies
2 Define IT infrastructure and describe its components. Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesLEARNING OBJECTIVESDefine IT infrastructure and describe its components.Identify and describe the stages and technology drivers of IT infrastructure evolution.Assess contemporary computer hardware platform trends.Assess contemporary software platform trends.Evaluate the challenges of managing IT infrastructure and management solutions.You might be familiar with developments like Facebook’s Application platform, where developers can design games and activities for use within Facebook itself. Also recall that cloud computing has been mentioned in earlier chapters.
3 Problem: Aggressive growth plans hampered by outdated technology. Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesCars.com’s IT Infrastructure Drives Rapid Business GrowthProblem: Aggressive growth plans hampered by outdated technology.Solutions: Replaced entire IT infrastructure to allow the company to keep pace with its quick expansion.IBM’s WebSphere application server and Rational software led to reduced costs and increased productivity.Demonstrates IT’s role in fostering the growth of a business.Illustrates IT infrastructure’s importance to a developing company.Cars.com was using a collection of technologies that had accumulated over ten years that made expansion impossible. Standardization across one platform (in this case, IBM) was necessary to continue their growth.
4 Defining IT infrastructure: Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureDefining IT infrastructure:Set of physical devices and software required to operate enterpriseSet of firmwide services including:Computing platforms providing computing servicesTelecommunications servicesData management servicesApplication software servicesPhysical facilities management servicesIT management, standards, education, research and development services“Service platform” perspective more accurate view of value of investmentsThe “service platform” perspective refers to analyzing the actual services enabled by new technology tools. For example, a new PC might save an employee one hour per day in wait time for information, dramatically increasing his value to the firm.
5 Management Information Systems Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureConnection Between the Firm, IT Infrastructure, and Business CapabilitiesThe services a firm is capable of providing to its customers, suppliers, and employees are a direct function of its IT infrastructure. Ideally, this infrastructure should support the firm’s business and information systems strategy. New information technologies have a powerful impact on business and IT strategies, as well as the services that can be provided to customers.The point of this slide is to illustrate the centrality of IT infrastructure and services to the achievement of firm success. Ultimately, what the firm delivers to customers, its quality, is a direct function of the power of its infrastructure. For instance, Amazon is routinely sited as the most popular online shopping site and receives high praise from customers for the quality of its service and speed of execution. There is a reason for this: Amazon has one of the world’s largest computing infrastructures numbering several hundred thousand processors to provide these services.Figure 5-1
6 Evolution of IT infrastructure Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureEvolution of IT infrastructureGeneral-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: 1959 to present1958 IBM first mainframes introduced, eventually used to support thousands of online remote terminals1965 less expensive DEC minicomputers introduced, allowing decentralized computingPersonal computer era: 1981 to present1981 Introduction of IBM PCProliferation in 80s, 90s resulted in growth of personal softwareClient/server era: 1983 to presentDesktop clients networked to servers, with processing work split between clients and serversNetwork may be two-tiered or multitiered (N-tiered)Various types of servers (network, application, Web)Notice the difference in size (much larger) and computing capacity (much smaller) from today’s computers to provide a sense of perspective regarding how far the computing industry has gone in 50 years. However, modern-day mainframes (IBM z-Series), are extremely powerful servers used for large Fortune 1000 enterprise networks and corporate Web sites. The mainframe is not dead in other words and still represents a large revenue stream for IBM.
7 Eras in IT Infrastructure Evolution Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureEras in IT Infrastructure Evolutionthe yellow ring connecting the machines in the client-server graphic represents a local area network. Personal computers were stand-alone systems prior to the development of local area networks.Illustrated here are the typical computing configurations characterizing each of the five eras of IT infrastructure evolution.Figure 5-2A
8 Evolution of IT infrastructure (cont.) Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureEvolution of IT infrastructure (cont.)Enterprise Internet computing era: 1992 to presentMove toward integrating disparate networks, applications using Internet standards and enterprise applicationsCloud Computing: 2000 to presentRefers to a model of computing where firms and individuals obtain computing power and software applications over the InternetFastest growing form of computingExamples of the use of cloud computing are Google Apps, Google’s suite of software applications that rivals Microsoft’s Office applications at a fraction of the cost, and Salesforce.com’s CRM management software, delivered over the Internet.
9 Eras in IT Infrastructure Evolution (cont.) Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureEras in IT Infrastructure Evolution (cont.)The enterprise Internet graphic represents several individual networks linked together into an enterprise-wide network. The cloud computing graph represents several types of technology that are capable of connecting to the Internet and accessing applications and services through a cloud. There is a Learning Track on cloud computing where students can pursue the topic further.Figure 5-2B
10 A Multitiered Client/Server Network (N-Tier) Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureA Multitiered Client/Server Network (N-Tier)the distribution of computing power across smaller, less expensive machines enabled by client/server computing is in large part responsible for the drastic increase in computing power and applications throughout the firm.In a multitiered client/server network, client requests for service are handled by different levels of servers.Figure 5-3
11 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureTechnology drivers of infrastructure evolutionMoore’s law and microprocessing powerComputing power doubles every 18 monthsNanotechnology: May shrink size of transistors to width of several atomsContrary factors: Heat dissipation needs, power consumption concernsLaw of Mass Digital StorageThe amount of data being stored each year doublesVariants of Moore’s Law include: the number of transistors on a chip doubles ever 18 months; computing power doubles every 18 months; and the price of computing falls by half every 18 months. This trend is likely to continue, with transistors reaching the sizes of viruses, the smallest form of life.
12 Moore’s Law and Microprocessor Performance Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureMoore’s Law and Microprocessor PerformancePacking more transistors into a tiny microprocessor has exponentially increased processing power.Source: 2004 Intel Corporation; updated by the authors.Figure 5-4
13 Falling Cost of Chips Management Information Systems Figure 5-5 Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureFalling Cost of ChipsAn Intel® processor today can contain as many as 1 billion transistors, run at 3.2 GHz and higher, deliver over 10,000 MIPS, and can be manufactured in high volumes with transistors that cost less than 1/10,000th of a cent. That’s a little less than the cost of one printed character in this book.Figure 5-5
14 Examples of Nanotubes Management Information Systems Figure 5-6 Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureExamples of NanotubesNanotechnology is used to create transistors of the tiny size previously mentioned.Nanotubes are tiny tubes about 10,000 times thinner than a human hair. They consist of rolled up sheets of carbon hexagons. Discovered in 1991 by researchers at NEC, they have the potential uses as minuscule wires or in ultrasmall electronic devices and are very powerful conductors of electrical current.Figure 5-6
15 The Capacity of Hard Drives Grows Exponentially 1980-2007 Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureThe Capacity of Hard Drives Grows ExponentiallyNotice the importance of the exponential growth in hard drive capacity, which is that the world is producing an increasing amount of digital information requiring storage each year as well. Fortunately, the cost of storing that information is decreasing at an even quicker rate.From 1980 to 1990, hard disk drive capacities for PCs grew at the rate of 25 percent annual compound growth, but after 1990, growth accelerated to more than 65 percent each year.Figure 5-7
16 The Cost of Storing Data Declines Exponentially 1950-2010 Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureThe Cost of Storing Data Declines ExponentiallyNotice that this figure displays the number of kilobytes of data that can be stored with one dollar. The Y axis is greatly compressed to display the doubling effect, and that if it weren’t, the increase from year to year would become increasingly enormous.Since the first magnetic storage device was used in 1955, the cost of storing a kilobyte of data has fallen exponentially, doubling the amount of digital storage for each dollar expended every 15 months on average.Figure 5-8
17 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.) Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureTechnology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)Metcalfe’s Law and network economicsValue or power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network membersAs network members increase, more people want to use it (demand for network access increases)Image Metcalfe’s law to social networks, such as Facebook and MySpace that the more members are using the site, the value of being a member and the usefulness of the site grows. Do people make “new friends” on a social site or hang out with their existing friends mostly?
18 Declining communication costs and the Internet Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureDeclining communication costs and the InternetAn estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide have Internet accessAs communication costs fall toward a very small number and approach 0, utilization of communication and computing facilities explodes
19 Exponential Declines in Internet Communication Costs Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureExponential Declines inInternet Communication Coststhe cost per kilobit has come to 0 since One implication: it costs no more to move a gigabyte from New York to San Francisco than it does to move the same amount of information from the top of a building to the basement. This means that data no longer needs to be located “close by” the user.One reason for the growth in the Internet population is the rapid decline in Internet connection and overall communication costs. The cost per kilobit of Internet access has fallen exponentially since Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems now deliver a kilobit of communication for a retail price of less than 2 cents.Figure 5-9
20 Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.) Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT InfrastructureTechnology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.)Standards and network effectsTechnology standards:Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a networkUnleash powerful economies of scale and result in price declines as manufacturers focus on the products built to a single standard
21 IT Infrastructure has 7 main components Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsIT Infrastructure has 7 main componentsComputer hardware platformsOperating system platformsEnterprise software applicationsData management and storageNetworking/telecommunications platformsInternet platformsConsulting system integration services
22 The IT Infrastructure Ecosystem Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsThe IT Infrastructure EcosystemThere are seven major components that must be coordinated to provide the firm with a coherent IT infrastructure. Listed here are major technologies and suppliers for each component.Figure 5-10
23 Computer hardware platforms Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsComputer hardware platformsClient machinesDesktop PCs, mobile computing devices – PDAs, laptopsServersBlade servers: ultrathin computers stored in racksMainframes:IBM mainframe equivalent to thousands of blade serversTop chip producers: AMD, Intel, IBMTop firms: IBM, HP, Dell, Sun MicrosystemsIn 2008, 285 million PCs were shipped worldwide with a market value of $253 billion, and in 2009 U.S. firms will spend about $150 billion on computer hardware.
24 Operating system platforms Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsOperating system platformsOperating systemsClient level: 95% run Microsoft Windows (XP, 2000, CE, etc.)Server level: 85% run Unix or LinuxEnterprise software applicationsEnterprise application providers: SAP and OracleMiddleware providers: BEAEmphasize Microsoft’s dominance in operating systems and explain that it is the most important reason for their success to date.The market for enterprise software applications is approximately $250 billion dollars. These applications are considered to be part of IT infrastructure. Traditionally, large firms were the most prominent users of enterprise software, but firms such as Microsoft are trying to move into the untapped market of small- and medium-sized businesses that might benefit from less expansive versions of the same software.
25 Data management and storage Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsData management and storageDatabase software: IBM (DB2), Oracle, Microsoft (SQL Server), Sybase (Adaptive Server Enterprise), MySQLPhysical data storage: EMC Corp (large-scale systems), Seagate, Maxtor, Western DigitalStorage area networks: connect multiple storage devices on dedicated networkThe amount of new information in the world is doubling every three years, driving the need for more efficient data management and storage.
26 Networking/telecommunications platforms Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsNetworking/telecommunications platformsTelecommunication servicesTelecommunications, cable, telephone company charges for voice lines and Internet accessAT&T, VerizonNetwork operating systems:Windows Server, Novell, Linux, UnixNetwork hardware providers: Cisco, Lucent, Nortel, Juniper NetworksFirms spent $210 billion on networking gear and a whopping $850 billion on networking services in Compare these in size to the previously mentioned figures in computer hardware platforms and enterprise software applications ($150 billion, $250 billion). This comparison can highlight the extent to which we are living in an era of telecommunications revolution as much as a computer era. The device in the hand is obvious to people, the communications network in the background is hidden.
27 Management Information Systems Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsInternet platformsHardware, software, management services to support company Web sites, (including Web hosting services) intranets, extranetsInternet hardware server market: Dell, HP/Compaq, IBMWeb development tools/suites: Microsoft (FrontPage, .NET) IBM (WebSphere) Sun (Java), independent software developers: Macromedia/Adobe, RealMediaInternet platforms are yet another area where Microsoft is featured prominently. The trend since the late 1990s has been to reduce the number of servers by increasing their size and power. Dell, HP/Compaq, and IBM have been the beneficiaries of this trend. Multi core processors, and blade servers, are two ways in which server power can be radically increased without increasing the foot print or the power requirements.
28 Consulting and system integration services Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure ComponentsConsulting and system integration servicesEven large firms do not have resources for full range of support for new, complex infrastructureSoftware integration: ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systemsLegacy systems: older TPS created for mainframes that would be too costly to replace or redesignAccenture, IBM Global Services, EDS, Infosys, WiproImplementing new infrastructure requires significant changes in business processes and procedures, training and education, and software integration. This is a task that firms struggle to achieve on their own, which drives the need for these services. Most business consulting today involves developing business processes and supporting systems.
29 While cost of computing is lower, infrastructure costs have expanded Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Hardware Platform TrendsWhile cost of computing is lower, infrastructure costs have expandedMore computing, more sophisticated computing, increased consumer expectations, need for securityThe emerging mobile digital platformCell phones, smartphones (BlackBerry, iPhone) have assumed data transmission, Web surfing, and IM dutiesNetbooks: small, low-cost lightweight notebooks optimized for wireless communication and core computing tasksBusiness computing is increasingly moving from PCs and desktops to mobile devices, and managers are increasingly using these to coordinate work and communicate with employees. For businesses iPhone along with Blackberries is an important management tool.
30 Cloud computing (utility computing) Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Hardware Platform TrendsGrid computingConnects geographically remote computers into a single network to combine processing power and create virtual supercomputerProvides cost savings, speed, agilityCloud computing (utility computing)Data permanently stored in remote servers, accessed and updated over the Internet by usersOrganizations using cloud computing need only pay for the computing power they actually use (on-demand or utility computing)Both grid computing and cloud computing allow organizations to optimize their use of resources in new ways. Grid computing allow corporations to take advantage of spare computing power in the form of networked virtual supercomputers, and cloud computing allows organizations to avoid the expenses of maintaining their own hardware and software, relying on the cloud instead.
31 Management Information Systems Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Hardware Platform TrendsComputing Goes GreenRead the Interactive Session: Technology, and then discuss the following questions:What business and social problems does data center power consumption cause?What solutions are available for these problems? Which are the most environment-friendly?What are the business benefits and costs of these solutions?Should all firms move toward green computing? Why or why not?Going green is not only an environmental concern, but there is also the incentive to reduce costs by developing more efficient and environmentally-friendly methods of powering systems. It is within the ability of almost any firm to take measures to ‘go green’ with their computing.Virtualization is an effective way to reduce the total computing resources required to run applications.
32 Virtualization and multicore processors Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Hardware Platform TrendsAutonomic computingIndustry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, optimize themselves, heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intrudersSimilar to self-updating antivirus software; Apple and Microsoft both use automatic updatesVirtualization and multicore processorsVirtualization: presents computing resources so that they can be accessed in ways that are not restricted by configurationAllows multiple operating systems to run on one machine; increases server utilization rates from to 70 percent of capacityMulticore processors: reduced power requirements, enhanced performanceAutonomic computing and virtualization are both methods of allocating resources more efficiently at the technological level (the previous slide describes technologies with a more organizational focus).
34 Web Services Management Information Systems Chapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesSoftware Platform Trends and Emerging TechnologiesWeb ServicesSoftware components that exchange information using Web standards and languagesXML: Extensible Markup LanguageMore powerful and flexible than HTMLTagging allows computers to process data automaticallySOAP: Simple Object Access ProtocolRules for structuring messages enabling applications to pass data and instructionsWSDL: Web Services Description LanguageFramework for describing Web service and capabilitiesUDDI: Universal Description, Discovery, and IntegrationDirectory for locating Web servicesFirms are collections of thousands of computer programs and systems built over many years. In general, these systems cannot “talk” with one another, and sharing information among them is very expensive. One way to get to work together is to build software links among them. This is the Web services approach (see the next slide on service oriented architecture). Any computer with a browser can access billions of Web pages and draw down the information, or download PDF files that work on all computers that have a version of Adobe acrobat installed. In a business firm, you want a similar environment: any computer program can get data from any other computer program. Web services makes this possible.XML includes classifying, presenting, communicating, and storing data, as opposed to HTML being able to merely present data. These features also allow computers to manipulate documents written in XML automatically.
35 SOA: Service-oriented architecture Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Software Platform TrendsSOA: Service-oriented architectureSet of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software applicationSoftware developers reuse these services in other combinations to assemble other applications as neededExample: an “invoice service” to serve whole firm for calculating and sending printed invoicesDollar Rent A CarUses Web services to link online booking system with Southwest Airlines’ Web siteEmphasize that SOA is a method of developing infrastructure using web services with an eye towards creating applications that draw data from several underlying (usually older programs). All programs are built or re-designed to provide certain information (services) to all other programs. With SOA, developers incorporate each individual service into an application that successfully meets the needs of the organization.
36 How Dollar Rent a Car Uses Web Services Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Software Platform TrendsHow Dollar Rent a Car Uses Web ServicesThe task Dollar wants to complete (interacting with other companies’ information systems) is represented here as a collection of individual services, in keeping with the SOA model. Dollar wants to be able to quickly and easily share data with other companies – the series of services provided above are combined to accomplish that task.Dollar Rent A Car uses Web services to provide a standard intermediate layer of software to “talk” to other companies’ information systems. Dollar Rent A Car can use this set of Web services to link to other companies’ information systems without having to build a separate link to each firm’s systems.Figure 5-11
37 Mashups and widgets Software outsourcing Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Software Platform TrendsMashups and widgetsMashups: Combinations of two or more online applications, such as combining mapping software (Google Maps) with local contentWidgets: small programs that can be added to Web pages or placed on the desktop to add additional functionalitySoftware outsourcingThree sources: external commercial vendor, online service providers, offshore firmsSoftware packages: prewitten set of software available commerciallySoftware as a service (SaaS): software delivered over the InternetOffshore outsourcing: usually governed by service level agreementService level agreements are formal contracts between customers and their service providers that define the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the service expected by the customer. These are important to establish communication between the two firms and to manage the project efficiently
38 The Changing Sources of Software Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesContemporary Software Platform TrendsThe Changing Sources of SoftwareNote the recent jump in SaaS spending within the last several years, and the pronounced rise in the last two or three years. What are the positives and negatives of acquiring software through the SaaS model? Positives: allows companies to focus on business issues rather than technology; for many companies, SaaS could cut costs. Negatives: SaaS increases the firm’s dependency on external suppliers (what happens if your supplied of SaaS services goes into bankruptcy? What is your backup plan?U.S. firms currently spend about $250 billion each year on software. In 2008, about 40 percent of that software will originate outside the firm, either from enterprise software vendors selling firmwide applications or individual application service providers selling software modules.Figure 5-12
39 Dealing with platform and infrastructure change Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesManagement IssuesDealing with platform and infrastructure changeAs firms shrink or grow, IT needs to be flexible and scalableHow does firm remain flexible and still make long term investments?Scalability: Ability to expand to serve larger number of usersFirms using mobile computing and cloud computing require new policies and procedures for managing these new platformsContractual agreements with firms running clouds and distributing software requiredEnvision some of the pitfalls of working with an external hardware or software vendor such as Google or Salesforce.com. What are some nightmare scenarios that companies must guard against? (The vendor fails to make critical applications available when needed, poor customer service, etc.)
40 Making wise infrastructure investments Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesManagement IssuesMaking wise infrastructure investmentsAmount to spend on IT is complex questionRent vs. buy, outsourcingCompetitive forces model for IT infrastructure investmentMarket demand for firm’s servicesFirm’s business strategyFirm’s IT strategy, infrastructure, and costInformation technology assessmentCompetitor firm servicesCompetitor firm IT infrastructure investmentsWhat types of companies should opt to rent as opposed to buy software? (Possibly companies with seasonal employees or semi-annual workloadsHow important of an impact do competitors’ services and investments affect a firm’s IT services and infrastructure? Is it wise to rely on those factors alone to determine what kind of services your firm provides?
41 Competitive Forces Model for IT Infrastructure Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesManagement IssuesCompetitive Forces Model for IT InfrastructureThere are six factors you can use to answer the question, “How much should our firm spend on IT infrastructure?”Figure 5-13
42 Total Cost of Ownership of Technology Assets Management Information SystemsChapter 5 IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesManagement IssuesTotal Cost of Ownership of Technology AssetsTCO model: Used to analyze direct and indirect costs of systemsHardware, software account for only about 20% of TCOOther costs include: Installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure, downtime, space and energyTCO can be reduced through greater centralization and standardization of hardware and software resources