STORCH Congenital infections that can cause birth defects.
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STORCH Congenital infections that can cause birth defects
Syphilis Is an infectious disease. The bacteria that causes it spreads through broken skin or mucous membranes. It is most often spread by sexual contact. Pregnant mothers infected with the disease can pass it to the baby developing in their womb. This is called congenital syphilis. Syphilis is widespread in the United States. It mainly involves sexually active adults between ages 20 to 29.
Symptoms The symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease. Many people do not have symptoms. In general, painless sores and swollen lymph nodes are symptoms of primary syphilis. Those with secondary syphilis may also have fever, fatigue, aches and pains, and loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Tertiary syphilis causes heart, brain, and nervous system problems.swollen lymph nodes secondary syphilis Tertiary syphilis
Dangers to Fetus Infant skin lesions Lymph node enlargement Multiple organ problems Most characteristic = skeletal abnormalities Vision/hearing problems 25% of infants die in first few months
Toxoplasmosis Is an infection due to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Is found in humans worldwide, and in many species of animals and birds. Cats are the definitive host of the parasite. Human infection may result from: Blood transfusions or solid organ transplants Carelessly handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and beef)
Toxoplasmosis Healthy individuals do not usually display symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they are usually mild, resembling infectious mononucleosis, and include the following: enlarged lymph nodes muscle pains fever that comes and goes general sick feeling tired
Damage to Fetus A pregnant host has a 40-60% chance of transmitting the infection to baby w/ serious damage –1 st trimester=fetal death or severe impairment –1 st or 2 nd = eye abnormalities, hydrocephalus, seizures –3 rd = often no impairments
Other Viruses including varicella zoster which causes chicken pox and shingles; polio –Miscarriage –Visual impairments –Cerebral palsy –Deaf-blindness
Rubella Symptoms could include: Rash Runny Nose Red Rash Swollen Lymph Nodes Fever Pain Headache Joint Pain Malaise Bruises Muscle Pain Eye Redness Body Ache Bruises Easily Feels Hot to Touch Perianal Rash
Rubella Most common viral cause of birth defects until 1969 when vaccination program began 80% risk of transmission to fetus during 1 st trimester; majority sustaining damage After 16 th week risk of severe impairment declines; fetus may acquire the infection without sustaining disability Impairments range from none to several and include; visual impairments, hearing defects, deaf-blindness, abnormalities of lungs and kidney, seizures, CP Some impairments may have later onset and include; encephalitis and lack of motor coordination No effective antiviral treatment for rubella
Cytomegalovirus CMV is an extremely common organism worldwide. It is believed that about 85 percent of the adults in the United States have been infected by CMV at some point in their lives. CMV is found in almost all of the body's organs. It is also found in body fluids, including semen, saliva, urine, feces, breast milk, blood, and secretions of the cervix (the narrow, lower section of the uterus). CMV is also able to cross the placenta (the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the unborn baby in the uterus). Because CMV can cross the placental barrier, initial infection in a pregnant woman can lead to infection of the developing baby.
CMV Symptoms Transmission to a fetus by a pregnant woman can result in severe damage; 40% risk of transmission Range from no symptoms to severe or fatal –Include organ damage, microcephaly, visual impairments –Asymptomatic children may develop problems later such as hearing loss
Herpes Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face. It is the most common herpes simplex virus and most people develop it in childhood. HSV-1 often causes lesions inside the mouth, such as cold sores (fever blisters), or infection of the eye (especially the conjunctiva and cornea). It can also lead to infection of the lining of the brain (meningoencephalitis). It is transmitted by contact with infected saliva. By adulthood, up to 90% of people will have antibodies to HSV-1.
HSV - 2 Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted. Symptoms include genital ulcers or sores. In addition to oral and genital sores, the virus can also lead to complications such as infection of the lining of the brain and the brain itself (meningoencephalitis) in neonatal infants due to infection during birth. However, some people have HSV-2 but do not show symptoms. Up to 30% of U.S. adults have antibodies against HSV-2. Cross-infection of type 1 and 2 viruses may occur from oral-genital contact.
Dangers to Fetus Range from severe impairments such as brain inflammation, multiple organ damage, mental retardation to milder forms of impairment such as blisters Transmission can be prevented by C- section within 4 hours of the rupture of the amniotic membrane