Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

5: DataLink Layer5-1 Data Link Layer r What is Data Link Layer? r Multiple access protocols r Ethernet.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "5: DataLink Layer5-1 Data Link Layer r What is Data Link Layer? r Multiple access protocols r Ethernet."— Presentation transcript:

1 5: DataLink Layer5-1 Data Link Layer r What is Data Link Layer? r Multiple access protocols r Ethernet

2 5: DataLink Layer5-2 Link Layer Services r framing, link access: m encapsulate datagram into frame, adding header, trailer m channel access if shared medium m “MAC” addresses used in frame headers to identify source, dest different from IP address!

3 5: DataLink Layer5-3 MAC Addresses r Earlier, we studied 32-bit IP address: m network-layer address m used to get datagram to destination IP subnet r MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet) address: m function: get frame from one interface to another physically- connected interface (same network) m 48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in NIC ROM, also sometimes software settable

4 5: DataLink Layer5-4 Example MAC Addresses Each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address Broadcast address = FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF = adapter 1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD 58-23-D7-FA-20-B0 0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98 71-65-F7-2B-08-53 LAN (wired or wireless)

5 5: DataLink Layer5-5 MAC Address (more) r MAC address allocation administered by IEEE r manufacturer buys portion of MAC address space (to assure uniqueness) r analogy: (a) MAC address: like Social Security Number (b) IP address: like postal address  MAC flat address ➜ portability m can move LAN card from one LAN to another r IP hierarchical address NOT portable m address depends on IP subnet to which node is attached

6 5: DataLink Layer5-6 Link Layer Services (more) r flow control: m pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes r error detection: m errors caused by signal attenuation, noise. m receiver detects presence of errors: signals sender for retransmission or drops frame r error correction: m receiver identifies and corrects bit error(s) without resorting to retransmission r half-duplex and full-duplex m with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can transmit, but not at same time

7 5: DataLink Layer5-7 Where is the link layer implemented? r in each and every host r link layer implemented in “adaptor” (aka network interface card NIC) m Ethernet card, 802.11 card m implements link, physical layer r combination of hardware, software, firmware network adapter card

8 5: DataLink Layer5-8 Multiple Access Links and Protocols Two types of “links”: r point-to-point m PPP for dial-up access m point-to-point link between Ethernet switch and host r broadcast (shared wire or medium) m old-fashioned Ethernet m upstream HFC m 802.11 wireless LAN shared wire (e.g., cabled Ethernet) shared RF (e.g., 802.11 WiFi) shared RF (satellite) humans at a cocktail party (shared air, acoustical)

9 5: DataLink Layer5-9 Multiple Access protocols r single shared broadcast channel r two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes: interference m collision if node receives two or more signals at the same time multiple access protocol r distributed algorithm that determines how nodes share channel, i.e., determine when node can transmit r communication about channel sharing must use channel itself! m no out-of-band channel for coordination

10 5: DataLink Layer5-10 Ideal Multiple Access Protocol What are the multiple access protocols?

11 5: DataLink Layer5-11 Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: TDMA TDMA: time division multiple access r access to channel in "rounds" r each station gets fixed length slot (length = pkt trans time) in each round r unused slots go idle r example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, slots 2,5,6 idle 1 3 4 1 3 4 6-slot frame

12 5: DataLink Layer5-12 Channel Partitioning MAC protocols: FDMA FDMA: frequency division multiple access r channel spectrum divided into frequency bands r each station assigned fixed frequency band r unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle r example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt, frequency bands 2,5,6 idle frequency bands time FDM cable

13 5: DataLink Layer5-13 Ideal Multiple Access Protocol TDMA and FDMA have their own disadvantages…

14 5: DataLink Layer5-14 Random Access Protocols r When node has packet to send m transmit at full channel data rate R. m no a priori coordination among nodes  two or more transmitting nodes ➜ “collision”, r random access MAC protocol specifies: m how to detect collisions m how to recover from collisions (e.g., via delayed retransmissions) r Examples of random access MAC protocols: m CSMA/CD m CSMA/CA

15 5: DataLink Layer5-15 CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) CSMA: listen before transmit: If channel sensed idle: transmit entire frame r If channel sensed busy, defer transmission r human analogy: don’t interrupt others!

16 5: DataLink Layer5-16 CSMA/CD (Collision Detection) CSMA/CD: carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA m collisions detected within short time m colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel wastage r collision detection: m easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths, compare transmitted, received signals m difficult in wireless LANs: received signal strength overwhelmed by local transmission strength r human analogy: the polite conversationalist

17 5: DataLink Layer5-17 “Taking Turns” MAC protocols channel partitioning MAC protocols: m share channel efficiently and fairly at high load m inefficient at low load: delay in channel access, 1/N bandwidth allocated even if only 1 active node! Random access MAC protocols m efficient at low load: single node can fully utilize channel m high load: collision overhead “taking turns” protocols look for best of both worlds!

18 5: DataLink Layer5-18 “Taking Turns” MAC protocols Polling: r master node “invites” slave nodes to transmit in turn r typically used with “dumb” slave devices r concerns: m polling overhead m latency m single point of failure (master) master slaves poll data

19 5: DataLink Layer5-19 “Taking Turns” MAC protocols Token passing: r control token passed from one node to next sequentially. r token message r concerns: m token overhead m latency m single point of failure (token) T data (nothing to send) T

20 5: DataLink Layer5-20 Summary of MAC protocols r channel partitioning, by time, frequency or code m Time Division, Frequency Division r random access (dynamic), m ALOHA, S-ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD m carrier sensing: easy in some technologies (wire), hard in others (wireless) m CSMA/CD used in Ethernet m CSMA/CA used in 802.11 r taking turns m polling from central site, token passing m Bluetooth, FDDI, IBM Token Ring

21 5: DataLink Layer5-21 Ethernet

22 5: DataLink Layer5-22 Ethernet “dominant” wired LAN technology: r cheap $20 for NIC r first widely used LAN technology r simpler, cheaper than token LANs and ATM r kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps Metcalfe’s Ethernet sketch

23 5: DataLink Layer5-23 Ethernet LAN r bus topology popular through mid 90s m all nodes in same collision domain (can collide with each other) bus: coaxial cable

24 5: DataLink Layer5-24 Ethernet: Unreliable, connectionless r connectionless: No handshaking between sending and receiving NICs r unreliable: receiving NIC doesn’t send acks or nacks to sending NIC m stream of datagrams passed to network layer can have gaps (missing datagrams) m gaps will be filled if app is using TCP m otherwise, app will see gaps r Ethernet’s MAC protocol: unslotted CSMA/CD

25 5: DataLink Layer5-25 Ethernet CSMA/CD algorithm 1. NIC receives datagram from network layer, creates frame 2. If NIC senses channel idle, starts frame transmission If NIC senses channel busy, waits until channel idle, then transmits 3. If NIC transmits entire frame without detecting another transmission, NIC is done with frame ! 4. If NIC detects another transmission while transmitting, aborts and sends jam signal 5. After aborting, NIC enters exponential backoff: after mth collision, NIC chooses K at random from {0,1,2,…,2 m -1}. NIC waits K·512 bit times, returns to Step 2

26 5: DataLink Layer5-26 Ethernet’s CSMA/CD (more) Jam Signal: make sure all other transmitters are aware of collision; 48 bits Bit time:.1 microsec for 10 Mbps Ethernet ; for K=1023, wait time is about 50 msec Exponential Backoff: r Goal: adapt retransmission attempts to estimated current load m heavy load: random wait will be longer r first collision: choose K from {0,1}; delay is K· 512 bit transmission times r after second collision: choose K from {0,1,2,3}… r after ten collisions, choose K from {0,1,2,3,4,…,1023}

27 5: DataLink Layer5-27 Practice Exercise r Consider an ethernet LAN consisting of three stations, A, B and C each having 1 frame. At time, t=0, A, B and C are ready to transmit frames of length 4, 5 and 10 slot times respectively. Assume collision wastes 1 slot time (including collision detection and jam signal). Also assume, after successful transmission of any frame, all the stations wait for 1 slot time and then try again. What is the minimum possible time, T, for all successful transmissions to be completed?

Download ppt "5: DataLink Layer5-1 Data Link Layer r What is Data Link Layer? r Multiple access protocols r Ethernet."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google