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1.7 International System of Units (SI)

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1.7

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Volume – SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m 3 ) 1 cm 3 = (1 x 10 -2 m) 3 = 1 x 10 -6 m 3 1 dm 3 = (1 x 10 -1 m) 3 = 1 x 10 -3 m 3 1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm 3 = 1 dm 3 1 mL = 1 cm 3 1.7

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Density – SI derived unit for density is kg/m 3 1 g/cm 3 = 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m 3 density = mass volume d = m V 1.7 A piece of platinum metal with a density of 21.5 g/cm 3 has a volume of 4.49 cm 3. What is its mass? d = m V m = d x V = 21.5 g/cm 3 x 4.49 cm 3 = 96.5 g

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Solution Stoichiometry The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. M = molarity = moles of solute liters of solution What mass of KI is required to make 500. mL of a 2.80 M KI solution? volume of KI solutionmoles KIgrams KI M KI 500. mL= 232 g KI 166 g KI 1 mol KI x 2.80 mol KI 1 L soln x 1 L 1000 mL x 4.5

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How would you prepare 60.0 mL of 0.200 M HNO 3 from a stock solution of 4.00 M HNO 3 ? M i V i = M f V f M i = 4.00 M f = 0.200V f = 0.06 L V i = ? L 4.5 V i = MfVfMfVf MiMi = 0.200 x 0.06 4.00 = 0.003 L = 3 mL 3 mL of acid + 57 mL of water= 60 mL of solution

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Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution. Dilution Add Solvent Moles of solute before dilution (i) Moles of solute after dilution (f) = MiViMiVi MfVfMfVf = 4.5

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Concentration Units The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. Percent by Mass % by mass = x 100% mass of solute mass of solute + mass of solvent = x 100% mass of solute mass of solution 12.3 Mole Fraction (X) X A = moles of A sum of moles of all components

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Concentration Units Continued M = moles of solute liters of solution Molarity (M) Molality (m) m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) 12.3

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What is the molality of a 5.86 M ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) solution whose density is 0.927 g/mL? m =m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) M = moles of solute liters of solution Assume 1 L of solution: 5.86 moles ethanol = 270 g ethanol 927 g of solution (1000 mL x 0.927 g/mL) mass of solvent = mass of solution – mass of solute = 927 g – 270 g = 657 g = 0.657 kg m =m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) = 5.86 moles C 2 H 5 OH 0.657 kg solvent = 8.92 m 12.3

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