NOTES: Unit 1-Basic Chem Review NAME 9-23-09 HOUR.
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NOTES: Unit 1-Basic Chem Review NAME 9-23-09 HOUR
(1) What is Biochemistry? The chemistry of living things Study of… –biological elements or chemicals –biomolecules –organic molecules
(2) Atoms Atom = Basic Unit of Matter Structure: –Nucleus = Protons (+) and Neutrons (0) –Electrons (-) Orbit around –Valence Electrons = Outermost Electrons EVERYTHING is made of atoms. Atoms Bonded Molecule
(3) Valence Electrons Outermost Electrons –Electrons orbit in “shells” around atom –Last Shell “wants” 8 Valence Electrons Cause Bonding & Reactivity –If atom does NOT have 8 Valence Electrons… –Unhappy, Unstable atom –Atoms “gets” happy by bonding and reacting with other atoms
(8) Polarity Polarity = Difference in Charges Certain atoms have a “greater” pull on valence electrons…. –BIGGER pull = MORE negative –SMALLER pull = MORE positive –Negative = Positive Difference in Charges Examples: –Water –Ammonia
(9) Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction = Interaction of atoms’ valence electrons. –Breaking of bonds –Rearranging of atoms –Forming of bonds –Release / Store Energy Happens when atoms are unstable (empty valence shell)!
(10) Energy Chemical Reactions = Conversion & Transfer of Energy Kinetic = Energy of Motion OR Energy Being Used –Break Bonds = Stored Energy becomes Kinetic –Form Bonds = Kinetic Energy stored in Bonds Potential = Stored Energy –Break Bonds = Release Potential Energy –Form Bonds = Store Work-Energy in Bonds