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Introduction to Assessment Basic Terms and Concepts.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Assessment Basic Terms and Concepts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Assessment Basic Terms and Concepts

2 Why Assess? “Read” the classroom culture Understand the characteristics of a particular group of students Plan instruction, group students

3 Why Assess? Get periodic feedback regarding teaching effectiveness, “formative” Diagnose problems Make final judgments about teaching strategies, “summative”

4 Types of Assessment Early Instructional Official

5 Types of Assessment 1. Early Assessment Students’ characteristics Teacher’s characteristics Classroom and teaching resources Informal, observational

6 Types of Assessment 2. Instructional Assessment “Howzit going?” (Are they getting it?) Formal (tests) and informal (observations) Flexibility Adjustments

7 Types of Assessment 3. Official Assessments Required by Administration Formal tests and assignments Results recorded in gradebook Formative and summative

8 Terminology Assessment Testing (collecting data) Measurement (converting to numbers) Evaluation (converting numbers to letters) “Umbrella term” that includes:

9 Collecting Data Paper and Pencil Tests Selection items (Choose an answer) Supply items (Create an answer) Performance Assessments Processes (Measures performances) Music, athletics, speeches, etc. Products (Measures tangible outcomes) Art, essays, poetry, shop projects, etc.

10 Collecting Data Observation Watching, listening, taking notes Oral Questioning Group, private

11 More Terminology Standardized Tests Administered, scored, and interpreted exactly the same for all test takers SAT, ACT, GRE, etc. Nonstandardized Tests Classroom tests

12 More Terminology Validity Does it measure what it is supposed to measure? Phrenologists say that it is possible to know personality and intelligence from reading the bumps and shape of one’s head. Valid?

13 More Terminology Reliability Measurements that are consistent in a variety of situations You should get the same results with each measurement

14 Validity vs. Reliability Measuring one’s head to judge intelligence is not valid, but it is reliable. (You will get the same measurement each time (reliable), but the measurement does not measure what it is supposed to measure (personality, intelligence), therefore it is not valid.

15 Ethical Considerations Fair and impartial Adequate preparation must be provided for tests Commitment to students’ welfare Accommodations when needed Validity (tests must be an accurate measure of student characteristics)


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