More Terminology Standardized Tests Administered, scored, and interpreted exactly the same for all test takers SAT, ACT, GRE, etc. Nonstandardized Tests Classroom tests
More Terminology Validity Does it measure what it is supposed to measure? Phrenologists say that it is possible to know personality and intelligence from reading the bumps and shape of one’s head. Valid?
More Terminology Reliability Measurements that are consistent in a variety of situations You should get the same results with each measurement
Validity vs. Reliability Measuring one’s head to judge intelligence is not valid, but it is reliable. (You will get the same measurement each time (reliable), but the measurement does not measure what it is supposed to measure (personality, intelligence), therefore it is not valid.
Ethical Considerations Fair and impartial Adequate preparation must be provided for tests Commitment to students’ welfare Accommodations when needed Validity (tests must be an accurate measure of student characteristics)